The scandal surrounding the book "One Thousand and One Nights"
The book "One Thousand and One Nights" is included in the list of the hundred best books of all time. Scenes from her were repeatedly turned into plays, ballets, films, cartoons, and performances. It seems, at least a few tales from the book knows everyone, not to mention the stories of Scheherazade. However, in the twenty-first century, a scandal erupted around the collection. German vostokovedka Claudia Ott made a statement that the "Thousand and One Nights" in the form in which we know it - is not nothing but a fabrication.
The book fell in love with the East
At the beginning of the eighteenth century French Orientalist Antoine Galland became standard, volume after volume, to publish his translation of the Arabic collection of fairy tales "Thousand and One Nights." The history of the king, who became ill uxoricide once saw three infidels wives and daughters of the vizier, thanks to the mind, and an endless supply of stories in his memory who managed to escape from the cruelty of the king, fascinated by Europe. Thick oriental flavor, heavily involved on eroticism, dizzy. West swept the general fashion to the East.
Galland translated the text into other languages: German, English, Russian. Often at the same time it cleans the erotic motifs and every indecency, making wider circle of readers. After "cleaning" of the book could easily give children and women, and illustrated a collection of Arabian Nights actually was part of a list of good, pleasing almost any gifts. Jinnah and peri, sorcerers and sultans, flowery express themselves, acting in defiance of European logic captures the reader's imagination. Book for centuries became a hit.
But Galland was not the only collection of the translator. Over time, there were a lot of people interested in the way the look in the original fairy tale. There are new translations from the Arabic. And carry out the people find that they can find in the original collection, not all fairy tales or fairy tales have a slightly different look, and sometimes popular in Europe, the story was simply impossible to find in the Arab sources, but were missed remarkable tales in circulation. The scandal of it did not. Often newly discovered podvorstyvali Galland to the specified canvas. "Thousand and One Nights" is still began for the European reader with the history of the two brothers Shahs and their wives infidels. With loud criticism of the prevailing ideas of the collection made only in our time arabistka Claudia Ott of Germany. While working on the next collection of translations, she discovered just how far common in Europe went from the original version, as disrespectfully treated him first translators, and in particular, Gullane.
To start with, in the original collection was a thousand and one tales. They were there a little less than three hundred. Strictly speaking, the "thousand and one" - a synonym for "very much". In addition, Gullane strongly distorted stories, making them more interesting for the European reader (he was guided, first and foremost, to the French royal court), more than emphasizing the sensuality and exoticism. To get the number of stories and let the next volume, Gullane included in a collection of stories that have no relation to it, and some of the followers of Galland and his publisher did not hesitate at all to invent these stories. So among the tales of Scheherazade's stories were Aladdin and Sinbad. With some "Arab" Arabian tales and generally the Muslim world I met only after they were transferred to the European languages. These tales include, most likely, "Ali Baba".
Treasury Muslim East
Generally considered a "Thousand and One Nights" monument only Arab literature is not true. This collection - the evolution of the Persian book "Hezar Afsaneh" ( "A Thousand Tales"), and Scheherazade - character is Persian. For a Westerner, probably, there is no difference, but Persian literature and persokulturnaya quite self-sufficient and well developed, it is not "just" kind of Arabic, although it has some connection with it.
Translating "Hezar Afsaneh" was made as early as the tenth century, in Baghdad and in the same enriched, besides Persian and Indian themes of the original collection, local tales, including adventure revered in Baghdad Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Adds a new tale for the same purpose, that later the Europeans - readers wanted more and more new media, more and more stories. When the collection began to sell in the Arab Egypt, he again has acquired new plots, and now - is typical Egyptian. It gradually formed a collection of classical Arabic version, it is "A Thousand and One Nights." It ceased to modify and build upon, probably after the conquest of Egypt by the Turks.
In the collection of fairy tales (of course, if you take more accurate translations than gallanovsky) can largely be judged on the features of the mentality of the inhabitants of the Muslim world until the sixteenth century. It is easy to notice that, although there are tales of representatives of various social strata, most often revolve around stories of merchants - namely merchant was a hero of his time (or rather, of several epochs in Muslim countries); Only after the merchants are the caliphs, sultans and their sons. Most of the collection is built around stories of cheating as the main pivot of action, and in half of these cases, cheating is good, helping the hero to get out of an awkward situation or saving his life. Cheating, resolve conflicts and leads to the world - this is a permanent story "A Thousand and One Nights."
Another feature of the collection of stories - an amazing and fatalistic heroes and storytellers (among them not only Scheherazade). Everything that happens or, prenachertano, and this does not go away. Often saves and decides the fate of the protagonist is not an act, but a happy or an accident. In general, everything in the will of Allah, and only a small - humanly possible.
In the original collection of a lot of poetry, which is characteristic of Arabic literature. Modern Europeans, these poetic inserts seem to squeeze in the text almost by force, but Arab ancient times quote or addition of poems was commonplace for the modern Russian culture - citing foreign apt aphorisms and puns on the go.
Ott translation differences from version familiar to us from childhood
The reader, who was born in the Soviet Union, remembers well the intonation "Thousand and One Nights." The king discovered that his wife was unfaithful to him. He killed her and went to visit his brother, the king, too. There they found that the second wife of the king wrong. Then the brothers went on a journey, and soon came upon a genie, whose wife led the brothers to sin with her directly in the presence of her sleeping husband. It also boasted that the two kings she had hundreds of lovers. One of the brothers, Shahriyar, adventure brought to mind. He returned home and there every day taking a wife a new girl, all night partying with her and executed the next morning. This went on for as long as he did not take a wife and beautiful daughter of a scientist of his vizier, Scheherazade. It is allowable per night (a Muslim is not always able to share a bed with her husband) told him the story, and when all the fairy tales in her mind over, it turned out that they were born three sons. Shahriyar did not kill her, and indeed it seems somehow easier. He did not think any more that all women - treacherous traitor.
In the version presented by Claudia, no two kings-brothers. Some Indian king was so beautiful that never tired of admiring himself in the mirror and asking subjects if there is someone in the world more beautiful. This went on for as long as one old man told the king about the beautiful young man, the son of a merchant from Khorasan. presents itself to the king of luring young man from Khorasan, but he lost his way in the beauty - because it just before leaving to find his young wife unfaithful to him. In India, young man, however, is witnessing infidelity of the royal concubines and blooms again with joy, that he was not one so miserable and stupid. After he discovers the truth about the traitor, and king.
Then outline returns to the one that we know, but not Scheherazade begins with the story of Sinbad. Generally part of fairy tales translated Claudia may seem unfamiliar and part - distorted, they have different accents and other details. Well, if Ott really tried to translate a collection as close as possible on the meaning and form, Gullane puffed Europe is much more than you initially were present, and we have a completely separate monument literature - European collection of fairy tales "Thousand and One Nights", which opens we as Europeans have seen (because I really wanted to see) the Muslim East.