Secrets of nature that scientists have yet failed to disclose
Although modern science has made great strides in understanding the laws of nature, there are many things to explain that scientists are simply not able to. In our review of ten seemingly simple questions, the answers to that yet.
1. Why do some mammals returned to the water
Science says that part of the marine animal limbs appeared in the process of evolution, which allowed them to move on land. But why some of these animals, for example direct ancestors whale, seals, moved back into the water remains unknown. For land animals much more difficult from an evolutionary point of view back into the sea, rather than vice versa. It is puzzling scientists worldwide.
2. Cows during meals always turn to the north or to the south of the
Usually no one eyeing the grazing cows, but when a team of scientists carefully studied thousands of Google Earth satellite images, they found an unknown fact for thousands of years. Cows always turns his head to the earth's magnetic poles (north or south), as they graze or rest. It remains unchanged regardless of wind or other factors. No one knows why it happens. Although it has long been known that some animals have "inner compass" for the first time like it was found in larger mammals. Also strange is the fact that the cows are closer to the poles, the less accurate they are oriented. This phenomenon is observed on all continents.
3. The alkaloids in plants
Plants often produce substances that have an animal, eat it, quite a strange effect. These substances called alkaloids, and one of the most common types is their morphine. In total, the researchers identified about 7,000 different types of alkaloids in plants. Although modern science has been able to study in detail these chemicals, why they started to be produced in plants - a mystery. Some believe that, in addition to external factors (such as the protection of plants against herbivores), alkaloids may be useful for the regulation of the metabolism of the plants themselves.
4. Why do flowers grow all over the planet
Flowering plants are found throughout the world, regardless of the climate. What is quite interesting, it was not always. Flowering plants about 400 million years ago, rather quickly replaced other types of flora, and today they account for about 90 percent of all plant species. This problem all my life trying to solve Charles Darwin, calling it a "terrible secret". The rapid development of flowers shortly after their appearance on Earth contradicts the theory of a slow evolution by natural selection.
5. Why are near the equator reigns diversity of life forms
Traveling from the colder areas of the planet to the Equator, it is easy to notice that life is becoming more diverse. 200 years ago the Prussian explorer Alexander von Humboldt discovered that biological diversity is increasing as we approach the equator, with the increasing variety of nature, culture and human disease. For example, now every time a new terrible viral disease occur in Africa or South America, just near the equator. There are about three dozen theories to explain this phenomenon, but they often contradict each other.
6. The paradox of phytoplankton
Phytoplankton - class of organisms found in large water bodies and includes a wide range of different subspecies. Essentially, this floating plants that are found throughout the world. A huge variety of these organisms calls into question the theory of evolution and natural selection. Lack of resources makes it impossible to survive in the ecosystem of the large number of different organisms. Nevertheless, they exist.
7. Argentine ants create colonies on different continents
Argentine ants at first glance no different from the other members of the species. But they are the only inhabitants of the earth, other than the person who managed to colonize the three continents. All three supercolonies Argentine ants in Europe, South America and Asia are inhabited by ants, which have the same genetic traits and are substantially the same population.
But puzzling scientists is not so much their natural habitat, but the social structure. Argentine ants recognize their fellows from other continents, but aggressive towards other types of ants. In addition, modern ants genetic code has not changed for thousands of years. This is surprising because the body outside their native environment tend to change rapidly.
8. The mysterious human ancestor
Pedigree modern man carefully studied for many years. Although the first people there for a long time, scientists now have a pretty good idea of the ancestors of Homo Sapiens. At least so it seemed as long as scientists have found traces of the existence of a new species of ancient ancestors of humans. When the researchers studied the DNA "denisovan", they found traces of an unknown species, which did not give identification.
It is worth noting that the hominids themselves Denisovskoe surrounded by mystery, but science is at least knows who they are and where they came from. This is not true of about 30 000 years as an unknown, which clearly multiplied Denisovskoe people back and that left a clear mark on the DNA denisovtsev. In principle, all that is known about this form - this is what he gave denisovtsam strange set of teeth, which occur nowhere else in the animal kingdom.
9. The animals that can live without oxygen,
Almost every organism on Earth lives due to oxygen - some living organisms consume it, but others produce. Scientists have recently announced a shocking discovery - the first deep oxygen-free animals were found in the Mediterranean Sea. Although some bacteria and other simple organisms can live without oxygen, it was previously unheard of in complex multicellular animals. As many as three species of creatures belonging to the group of marine invertebrates loricifera, was found at 3, 5 km depth. Scientists do not have a clue about how they have evolved.
10. Sexual reproduction
Aside from some microbes and plants, almost all living beings in the world reproduce sexually. People take it for granted, but in reality it is a huge evolutionary anomaly. Indeed, half of all species (males) are not able to produce offspring, but using in this case the same amount of resources from the environment. Why so much effort has been spent to develop a mechanism which has obvious disadvantages in the long term? Therefore, sexual relations are still a phenomenon that scientists can not fully understand.