Process for the production of rails trains
• The process for the production of rails trains
Even before the revolution was seen several projects for the construction of a large steel production in the Urals, is qualitatively different from the old Demidov plants. Construction Bakal metallurgical plant (so called first Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant) began in 1934. Raw materials for the industrial giant was to be the Bakal iron ore deposit. But soon the construction freeze. The fact that the Soviet metallurgical engineering to pull such a project was not able to, and funds for the purchase of equipment abroad whether there was, or foreigners themselves do not agree to sell it. So frozen Bakal plant and lasted until 1941.
When I went here, I had no doubt that this is a very powerful and a great plant. Look, what a huge workshop, where there are only a few, so to speak, spare parts to one of the camps.
In the ten days prior to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War Council of People's Commissars adopted a resolution on the construction of the plant. Unclosed issue with the equipment for future enterprise resolved itself: in the autumn of 1941 on the construction site began arriving trains with evacuees capacity of Alchevsk Metallurgical Plant, Elektrostal near Moscow, the factory "Red October" (Stalingrad), Novolipetsk Metallurgical Plant and Zaporizhstal. May 1, 1942 was laid the first cubic meter of concrete in the foundation of the meltshop.
April 19, 1943 the first metal is poured into a ladle. This date is considered the official birthday of Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. April 30 first blast furnace pig iron produced first, and on August 2 coke batteries number 1 produced the first coke. In one third of tanks and combat aircraft of World War II, issued in 1943, was the Chelyabinsk steel. At the same time there have learned to smelt metal to bearings (especially its mass purchasing in the UK). In Soviet times the plant has successfully participated in the implementation of space programs, producing metal for the military-industrial complex and knowledge-intensive sectors of the economy. In 2003, CMP was a part of "Mechel" Group. And almost as soon as the company starts the realization of a large-scale technical re-equipment program, in fact, and now the story continues.
Stand with rolling rolls.
As an example, I offer to stay on our agenda today, the production of a new generation of rail. In March 2012, we launched at CMP facility for the production of rail steel, which included continuous casting machine number 5 (CCM-5) and a secondary treatment units steel, the annual output of 1, 2 million tons. And in July 2013 opened a new universal rolling mill (URBS), who became the first Russian production of structural shapes and rail length of 12, 5 and 100 meters. It is important to note that the new production created more than 1,500 new jobs, and thanks to the decommissioning of old equipment and the construction of modern sewage treatment plants, significantly decreased and the proportion of CMP effects on the environment, which is very important for Chelyabinsk.
The heating furnace. Approximately every 2 minutes thence out blanks, which are obtained and our 100-meter track.
the rail blank length is approximately 8 meters, weight - about 7 tons. After she came out of the oven, the preform enters the plant where strays scale with a good contrast shower. The jets of water under pressure to 250 atmospheres, like knife smoothly separated from the crust of metal on all sides.
Today Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant - it is one of Russia's largest integrated steel cycle for the production of high-quality and high-grade steels. The company produces a wide range of products including rebar for construction, stainless steel for mechanical engineering, rail, beam. All the work at CMP was mastered the production of about 2 000 different grades of steel and alloys, as well as more than 4000 rental and shapes. Incidentally, CMC - one of the few companies in the country, which is given the right to confer its own index products - PC (Chelyabinsk Steel). Among CMP customers noticed: the nuclear power industry, heavy industry, chemical and energy production, automotive and agricultural engineering, bearing and pipe mills, construction companies, and, of course, the Russian Railways. For example, in 2017, the CMP Railways shipped 330,000 tons of rails, if you translate tonne kilometers, the path length would cover the distance from Chelyabinsk to St Petersburg.
In the next step the workpiece in its close embrace receives edger. Thanks to it is attached to the geometric shape in advance, as it is called distributors, "leader" has a similar profile to the finished rail or beam.
The versatility of the camp just as the issue is of rail products, and molded products for the construction industry. For example, we drove past the "dog bone", so loving, local steelmakers called billets for the I-beam used in construction.
suction gas cleaning system - here's another object that I would like to draw your attention. It was created specifically for the rolling mill. individual project. Such a system is not used anywhere else. It has 3 treatment levels. According to the principle of the suction system is similar to a domestic vacuum cleaner, just huge. It collects the smallest particles of dust and various chemical elements are formed during hot rolling.
Aspiration system gas purification.
Finally, our billet get to stand rolling mill. This is where the rails are made of up to 100 meters using the most advanced technologies. And the first thing they put quality stamp evidencing that the rails are made in the Urals. At CMP are proud of their products. The letter "W" - the logo of the enterprise - is always produced at each rail, as well as the date of its publication in the camp. Marking rail during rolling.
The total area of rail and structural steel production capacity is over 186, 000 square meters. Incidentally, this area could easily have fit 26 football fields. Yes, those where our recently held World Cup. For the construction of the building only relsootdelki (it takes 1/3 of the shop) 15 500 tons of steel were produced. It is about two Eiffel Tower. On the foundation of the unit it took 144,500 cubic meters of concrete. By volume is 35 large swimming pools. The length of the new mill is about 1, 5 kilometers, and if the measured whole processing line, then it is over 3 kilometers. Total plant volume is comparable to the volume of launchers of spacecraft.
Rail on the quenching bath:
The supplier of equipment for the camp made the Italian company Danieli, a general contractor was the Chinese company China Minmetals. It was built two years. Incidentally, in March of 2017 rolling mill CMP recognized as the best project on import according to the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs. The total production capacity of the mill exceeds 1 million. Tons of structural shapes and rail products.
The rails are quenched in a unique polymer solution, which gives them great hardness and strength. Incidentally, this technology has no analogues in Russia and is protected by international patents.
Hardening of the rail head in the polymer.
Grips hardening line.
Due to various plastic manipulations, increased our long-predlinnymi rails. Therefore, they should be slightly shortened. For "barber" works here specially trained machine - drank hot cutting.
Saw hot cutting.
The straightness of the rails is achieved, including through a special refrigerator. In this process area mill cool rails 2, 5 hour. Reiki, exhibited here with high accuracy, helping avoid deformation of railway products, which falls on the refrigerator still hot. Rails before editing on the refrigerator.
A couple of hours they'll cool down, relax.
At the finish line, our flights are two regular machines that straighten rails horizontally and vertically.
Horizontal rolikopravilnaya machine.
Vertical rolikopravilnaya machine.
At each stage of production like and so there is a complete control over the product, but at the finish of our tracks are waiting for the real tests, rather, five of them. It is responsible for this special automated line of non-destructive testing (NRC).
All the tracks scanned for straightness, the presence of various defects, as well as the profile itself the size and quality of the metal itself.
The instrument measuring straightness NRC.
By the way, our rails surpass foreign counterparts on a number of important indicators, such as low-temperature reliability, enhanced wear resistance and contact fatigue.
And more surprised me here such cranes, I still have not seen anywhere else. Strikingly, as the one machinist via joysticks, it provides a noiseless movement huge machine 100 meters in length and weighing 400 passenger cars.
rails to the customers Shipment as train / railway and road.
Further welding 100-meter long rails in the 800-meter whip occurs in another enterprise - Chelyabinsk rail welding RSP-13, which is also located at the site CMP, but the Group "Mechel" is not included. Okay, about them briefly, too, I will tell, though yet there I was not hit. Chelyabinsk RSP-13 - this is one of the largest rail-welding companies in the world. Its production capacity is about 450 thousand. Tons of welded rails per year. After welding, the finished 800-meter whip already sent directly to the place of installation of high-speed and high-speed railways. They were being taken to the place of installation in the same 800-meter long trains - during transport whip, despite the nature of steel, are flexible and do not break. This length allows for laying avoid a large number of welded joints, thus becomes a way of "velvet" and silent.