Do people flew into space before Yuri Gagarin?
Hard to believe that space exploration for the USSR passed so successfully: the first attempt with a man - and just good luck! During an intense rivalry between the Soviet Union and America was too great a temptation to wishful thinking to support the country's prestige. Therefore, among the then dissidents and today there are skeptics who doubt the official version. You can not exactly claim that Gagarin had no predecessors, whose life ended tragically in space.
Astronaut Bondarenko died in March 1961 at a performance of
In the early 1990s, when there was an opportunity to work with top secret archives before, we began to study the Soviet space theme, casting rumors. The study Zheleznyakova A. and A. Pervushina only one astronaut died before Gagarin's flight.
Due to the fact that all the details of the death of a member of the first group of cosmonauts were secret, many people are willing to believe in alternative versions.
In fact, the senior lieutenant Bondarenko died on Earth, at the Institute of Aviation Medicine. It happened during an experiment simulating space conditions. The atmosphere in the chamber contains an extremely large proportion of oxygen, and also maintain a high pressure. These characteristics contributed to the rapid spread of fire, when astronaut accidentally dropped the cotton soaked in alcohol, on a hot electric stove. This cotton, he was rubbing the skin, removing the medical sensors.
It burned not only the entire contents of the pressure chamber, and even wool suit tester. Help Valentina quickly failed, as opening doors require time because of the pressure drop. 24-year-old boy was taken to hospital with extensive burns, but could not save his life.
Unavailability of information about this incident was the indirect cause of such a tragedy for American astronauts in 1967. When preparing the mission "Apollo" space complex in them. Kennedy during the test, there was a large fire that claimed 3 lives. The volume of the safety instructions were prepared in great detail, it contains more than 200 pages. But the risk of fire, do not take into account, the gap was fatal.
Vladimir Ilyushin - astronaut ahead of Gagarin, landed badly on the Chinese territory and was captured by the
In 1961 there was a sensational note that the first flight into space did not Gagarin, and Ilyushin in the Daily Worker newspaper of the American left. And the event is not held on April 12, and five days earlier.
the world community of false information by the Soviet Union explains: Vladimir Ilyushin landed badly in China. There astronaut held captive by finding out secret information about the achievements of the Soviet space program. Therefore, the public presented Gagarin, who according to rumors, was not the first.
In fact, the Ilyushin had in space was not, and the prospects of not standing in front of him. He was a test pilot, and, moreover, a brilliant pilot, the world record holder, have earned many awards. Father Vladimir - Sergey - was a famous aircraft designer, whose name are the aircraft "IL".
In the air, Vladimir Ilyushin was invulnerable, never lost his clarity of thought, even in the most difficult situations. But here in the land of the accident could not be avoided - it happened in the summer of 1960, the state of health of the pilot seriously deteriorated. He decided to turn to non-traditional Chinese medicine, going to Hangzhou. And there was a legend that Ilyushin after a complicated landing in poor condition hold Chinese.
Alex Belokonev suffocated from lack of oxygen
A lot of conflicting information, which picked up briskly Western newspapers, came from the Italian amateur radio operators on Yudika-Kordilya name. They reported that he had repeatedly heard signals from space, which distinguish the sound of the human heart, inconsistent breath, Morse code, the request for assistance, and we are just the astronauts communicating with the station. One of the victims of the system, the secret witness the destruction of which were Italians, was Belokon (common spelling Belokonev). According to several newspapers, including Reader`s Digest and Corriere della Sera, called Soviet cosmonaut suffocated during the flight.
This version adds credence to that photo Belokoneva together with colleagues who are preparing for space conditions, published in the magazine "Ogonyok". Training showed, and the results - no, then under the iron curtain hides a failure, so the astronauts were killed - so seemed logical chain of events for all involved in the space theme of Western journalists.
In fact, a person with such name existed and was associated with the space, but not a single flight has not committed, as it was a test equipment. Moreover, he is alive and healthy after nearly 30 years, described the tragedy in space, even in the '70s continued to work at the Institute of Space Medicine. He died in 1991.
Ivan Kachur was killed by an explosion during the launch in 1960
According to "Reuters" agency in a number of "zero" astronauts entered and colleague Alexei - Ivan Kachur, too, test equipment, which specialized in high-altitude tests, which had to breathe oxygen under positive pressure. Western media have claimed that the astronaut was killed during the launch of a ballistic missile in the autumn of 1960, in the explosion.
In fact, really is launched in September 1960, and indeed he was unsuccessful - the explosion. But on board were only 2 dogs, they were killed. A test equipment Ivan Kachur at that time had already been dismissed from the Soviet Army (this event is dated April 28), he returned to the Ukraine, his native Ivano-Frankivsk region.
Zavodovsky during space flight carried away in an unknown direction
Another technician test Gennady Zavodovsky according to the news agency "Reuters" lost in space in the 60th. The reason is called the breakdown of the system spacecraft orientation. And, instead of approaching the Earth ship began to drift away.
In fact, test Zavodovsky, like his colleagues, did not get into space before Gagarin, and have never been there. This man helped in the development of space exploration that was tested - specialized in breathing during Elevations pressure. Its activities are recorded in the Book of Honor testers.
Died test in 2002, rests in the cemetery, "Rakitin" in the suburbs.
Space historian A. Peslyak writes that the test work in the world was quite difficult and dangerous. Many of the soldiers who participated in the Soviet space program, donated health development. For 10 years, until the Soviet Union was preparing for a triumphant space exploration, 20% of the test was found to partially fit for further service, but still about 16% of the commission does not allowed to continue working in conditions of "Earth space." The average length of life test did not exceed 50 years.