The warmest things in the world
• The warmest thing in the world
In order to survive in the Arctic, people had to fight back the enemy main man in these latitudes - terribly penetrating the cold to the bone. But the ingenuity and resourcefulness allowed to tame the cold and brutal North. In the Arctic clothing should not only retain heat, but also to protect from the wind, not giving him the opportunity to get under the clothes.
The traditional outfit of the Eskimos of Canada is a two fur costume, worn one on top of another. Hides top costume face fur on the outside, and the lower - the fur inside. Each suit is made up of parks with hood, pants, gloves and boots. Thus, the double layer of fur is perfectly protected from the cold the whole body. Eskimos do not wear belts, so both parks hang freely, which provides ventilation. In the manufacture of boots comes with reindeer skins, which sewed fur on the outside, so that the foot does not slide on the ice.
Clothes made of reindeer skins, not only provides excellent thermal insulation. It may also be the only means of salvation is when a hunter accidentally falls through the ice. Since deer hair hollow, it allows a person to stay on the surface for a long time, sometimes up to several hours, which significantly increases the chances of survival.
It is for all these qualities and loved the first polar explorers traditional clothing of the North, and took it as a basis for the manufacture of polar suits up to 40-ies of the last century. Here is how a typical polar suit 30s Arctic explorer Nikolai Urvantsev: "I dressed warm enough and at the same time easily. I wore a simple knitted and woolen underwear, woolen sweater, fur shirt fawn fur inside; fur pants with a corsage, which refuel shirt; on the legs - simple and woolen socks, long, down to the waist, fur inside stockings and finally, fur, too, from the waist up, sapogi- "Bakari". The boots lying thick felt insole. For protection from the wind on top of everything was put on "wind" shirt with a hood and a dense parachute silk pants. I put on a parka only in particularly severe blizzard. "
But as the occupation and household members of high-latitude expeditions are often very different from the traditional way of Inuit clothing locals did not always meet their needs. The problem was to maintain a balance between the seemingly mutually exclusive properties - high thermal insulation and good ventilation.
Therefore, until the mid 60-ies polar experimented with costumes, which was used for sewing fur various animals. The move was also quilted clothes eider feathers or wool. polar set of clothes of those times included silk and woolen underwear, trousers eiderdown feathers or camel hair, wool sweater and a diving short quilted jacket. Protected from frost head woolen balaclava, top cap with a leather upper and a fur hood. It completed the vestments woolen scarf and woolen gloves and the shoes, whose range has not changed so far: boots, boots and rubber boots. Outerwear sewed of thick windproof.
Since the beginning of operations in more severe physical and geographical conditions of the Antarctic highlands and with the change in the Arctic expedition with a predominantly industrial, costume polar needed serious revision. So began the search for new materials and research on the thermal state of a person in different conditions. So in the USSR there was a well-established model of the polar working clothes - a suit AEC. The costume consisted of a jacket with a hood and windscreen valve closing lower face, and overalls. As a heater were camel hair, laid between two layers of gauze and monofilament waterproof film. Cotton fabric for a long time was used as the top of the material, until it shall not abandoned because of numerous shortcomings.
In the 80 years as materials of the top instead of cotton fabrics are used fabrics made of polyester textured yarns which retain flexibility at low temperatures, are soft and durable. In Europe and the United States have attempted to create a polar overalls of synthetic materials: nitrone, polyvinyl chloride, polyester, and others. However, the clothing from this material did not give a satisfactory heat effect.
A new impetus in the field of production equipment for polar expeditions, after the invention of membrane fabrics and materials. Due to their structure (which pores passed moist warm air from the inside and prevent the penetration of moisture from the outside) membrane or "breathable" materials combine excellent wind and moisture barrier properties with good ventilation and insulation.
Modern polar overalls kit consists of three layers: underwear, wool or fleece, feather suit or jacket. The main function of each layer is heat preservation and transport moisture to the overlying layer, and further output it to the outside. To achieve these goals, and uses the latest membrane materials.
The filler in downy overalls or jacket is not only used fluff (duck or goose), but also synthetic materials such as Thinsulate, Thermolite, Daune and Quallofil. They are worthy rivals of natural insulation and provide reliable thermal protection combined with good ventilation.