Walking in Paris
• Walk through Paris
Walking in Paris in 2015.
Paris - a city of contrasts.
Oneuro. The new symbol of Paris - African immigrant who sells souvenirs under the Eiffel Tower, Paris, France.
The years of French colonial rule in Africa, which ended only in the 70s of the 20th century, as well as its status as one of the largest tourist centers of the world turn to Paris cultures merge point, lifestyles and customs of many different nationalities.
A relatively high standard of living are attracted to this city of immigrants from around the world. If before the end of the Second World War, the number of immigrants of the first and the second "wave", consisting essentially of the Portuguese, Italians and Spaniards, was in the range of 3-4% of the total population, with the 50-ies of the 20th century begins the third, followed by and the fourth wave of immigration - instead of the less well-off citizens of European countries among immigrants begin to dominate the Arabs and the natives of "black Africa".
Despite caused by this socio-economic tensions, Paris retains the title of "city of lovers". France has consistently tops the list of the most popular international tourist destinations, and the French capital always gets in the top five most popular among urban tourists.
The Champ de Mars, Paris, France.
This is closely intertwined with the modern European policy, creates a mouthwatering image of Paris, is fundamentally different from what it saw Victor Hugo and Gustave Eiffel.
Tourists in the Citroen.
View of Paris from the Montparnasse Tower.
In spite of the radical changes in the structure of society, much in Paris remained unchanged. This primarily refers to the architecture of the historic center. Nevertheless, even the "frozen music" over the past century has undergone some major changes. The first radical changes in the "score" on behalf of the Paris of Napoleon III made Baron Haussmann, who carried out alterations to the city center in the 19th century. In addition to solving problems with traffic and improving sanitary conditions laid directly on top of the existing intricate quarters broad, straight avenues greatly complicate the possibility of erecting barricades. Serious drawback "Haussmannization" Paris, from today's perspective is that the city was deprived of the set of medieval buildings that had historical and architectural value. In fact, from the Middle Ages in the city was only a fragment of the fortifications, which can be seen in the basement of the Louvre museum.
Modernist "improvisation" in classical composition construction made Eiffel Tower, in fact, has become the symbol of Paris. American scientists analyzed the recent 60 million images from social networking came to the conclusion that the tower is not only the most visited but also the most photographed sites in the world.
Paris did not try to rebuild just lazy. The great modernist and functionalist Le Kyubyuze, author of "Radiant City," in 1925 proposed a "Plan Voisin", continues the work of Baron Haussmann. According to the architect's plan, in the center of Paris was supposed to be the quarter of 18 skyscrapers, separated by a shady avenues, parks and wide highways. Despite the fact that at that time there was already a Manhattan building, Le Kyubyuze ideas were perceived as too revolutionary.
Nevertheless, 40 years later, in 1965, it adopted the "General scheme of reconstruction and development of the Paris region", and then in the vicinity of the Eiffel Tower on the left bank of the Seine rose fron quarter-de-Seine from more than 20 skyscrapers.
Then there was the project "Olympic Games", has turned today into a part of the Parisian Chinatown, and the antithesis of the Eiffel Tower - Montparnasse Tower. Repeating the words attributed to Guy de Maupassant, the Parisians are joking that the most beautiful view of Paris opens from the top of a skyscraper, because then he will himself out of sight. The crucial difference La Defense district, built in the same years, from previous projects is that it is built outside of Paris, in the territory of the commune of Courbevoie and towns Puteaux and Nanterre. However, in 1972 in Paris, still there was a wave of protests - the new high-rise buildings, according to the Parisians, distorted perspective of the Champs-Elysees. There is, however, in the area of today built 43 buildings taller than 90 meters. The most interesting of them is the Grande Arche 110 meters high, which is a three-dimensional projection of a 4-hmernyh hypercube (tesseract).
Avenue Charles de Gaulle, the guiding in the quarter La Défense.
In 1974, La Défense, the construction of skyscrapers in the precincts of Paris was temporarily prohibited two years after the completion of the Montparnasse Tower and the first stage, but several years ago the ban was lifted. In addition to the economic interests of the city and developers, a major cause is the rapid growth of the population of the French capital. According to estimates of the National Institute of Economic Research and Statistics, every year the population of Paris is growing by almost 1, 5%. And there are good reasons.
According to official statistics, today one in twenty people of Paris - a native of Africa. The main reason - the former French colonies in the Maghreb, tolerant immigration policy to its former colonies, and particularly African tribal relations. The so-called family immigration, ie the entry into France "for a family reunion," has a very vague boundaries for the people in Africa who have "the minimum unit of society" - a clan or community.
During the break in the Paris School:
A few years ago, France further added fuel to the fire by taking an active part in the overthrow of the Gaddafi regime. As a result, beset by civil war, Libya kind of migration "filter" in recent years it has turned into an open channel of illegal migration of hundreds of thousands of Africans who come through Italy to France. Undercover on the background of the bas-reliefs Minor Arc de Triomphe and the Louvre.
The situation would not be so dismal, if not for the low training of immigrants from North Africa. The average unemployment rate among African immigrants is more than 30%. But the situation is much worse in the African countries themselves.
Workers repairing equipment at the grocery store.
Senegal - a former French colony, gained independence in 1960. Most people know about Senegal only because of the country's capital. It is in the city of Dakar from 1978 to 2008, the participants finished the annual transcontinental rally-marathon "Paris-Dakar". Senegal today - is one of the poorest countries in the world, lives, in fact, at the expense of foreign aid. According to official statistics, every second Senegalese - unemployed.
African immigrant who sells souvenirs in the Tuileries Gardens.
This largely explains the situation where every morning in the area between the Champs de Mars and the Trocadero there are hundreds of illegal Africans, adhering to naive tourists hoping to foist them Chinese Eiffel Tower, Selfie stick and other gadgets at inflated prices. In response, the Paris police arranges near the Eiffel Tower raids, detaining daily up to fifty natives of Senegal, Mali, Congo and other countries of the black continent. The police are still hundreds of kilograms of illegal souvenirs. But in spite of that every morning the situation is repeated again and again. It does not matter - whether it's Trocadero or the Place du Carrousel, that of the Louvre, - immigrants everywhere. And Parisians can only recall the words of Fox, addressed to the little prince: "We will always be responsible for those who have tamed." Elderly Parisian.
Love in the distance.
In the year of the French capital is visited by approximately 30 million tourists - 10 times the size of Paris residents, including immigrants. The abundance of tourists has led to the fact that in 2013, the Paris Chamber of Commerce and the Regional Tourism Council released a special booklet, "Do you speak tourist?", In which for the Parisians employed in the service sector, describes the features of a holiday tourists from different nationalities.
French cafe waiter.
Changes in the behavior of tourists that have occurred in recent years, largely due to the rapid development of social media and modern means of communication.
Selfie with the Mona Lisa, the Louvre.
First of all, these changes facing workers museums - Orsay, the Orangerie, the Louvre and others.
Dial in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
The Louvre - the most popular museum in the world, for the year it is visited by about 10 million people. The museum displays a collection of ancient and Western European art until 1848.
The history of the Egyptian department of the Louvre. He has appeared as a result of removal of Ottoman treasures of Egypt during Napoleon's company in 1798-1801 years.
Although even more obliged to Napoleon the British Museum - the majority of the French in Egypt looted property was subsequently confiscated by the UK and is now exhibited in the second volume of the collection of the Egyptian museum in the world - the British Museum in London.
But most attention is focused not in the Louvre to Egypt, and to a few very specific works of art. This is the Mona Lisa, Venus de Milo and "Slaves" by Michelangelo. Beside these world-famous masterpieces is constantly observed the greatest number of visitors. Most of them are occupied not by viewing works of art - they make selfie. Photos from the "slaves" by Michelangelo, The Louvre, Paris, France.
At the beginning of 2015 Selfie stick have been banned in a number of museums in the world, as well as some of football and tennis competitions, and even in the French Disneyland, because they can cause damage to a work of art, or the tourists themselves. Nevertheless, until the Louvre gives its visitors the opportunity to fully enjoy the selfie on the background of his most famous attractions.
View of Paris from the Montparnasse Tower.