10 great civilizations that have ceased to exist
The history of mankind can be compared with the biography of one family - with some members of the household over time leave, others come into the world, and each lives life in his own way, leaving certain memories of himself. In the case of a global 'family' of homo sapiens as its members serve entire civilizations - some of them manage to survive for thousands of years, and some people are not given a stretch and a few centuries, but one way or another, place the lost civilization immediately takes next - in this is the great sense of justice and a great history.
1. Olmec civilization
The Olmecs - one of the oldest civilizations in Central America, with an outstanding culture and unusually high for its time, the level of development of science and technology.
"Visiting card" of the Olmecs are considered the giant sculpture in the form of heads, located in present-day Mexico. The flowering of Olmec state came in the period between 1500 m and 400-m years BC, according to historians, this nation has achieved impressive success in architecture, agriculture, medicine, literature and other fields of knowledge. At the Olmecs had a fairly accurate calendar and mathematical system, which used the number "0", which can be considered a breakthrough.
Having existed for over a thousand years, the Olmec civilization for unclear reasons still declined, but any other state on its ruins, such as ...
2. The Aztec Empire
"Golden Age" of the Aztec civilization is the period between the 1428th and 1521st years - at this time the empire covers a huge territory, where, according to some estimates, about 5 million people, the population of its capital, Tenochtitlan was situated on the site of modern Mexico City, it was approximately 200 thousand. The Aztecs much borrowed from the Olmec civilization, including - religious beliefs, ritual games, the tradition of human sacrifice, language, calendar, and some of the achievements of science and culture. The Aztec Empire was one of the richest and most highly developed countries of pre-Columbian America - enough to mention even of the most complicated aqueducts built by them for irrigation famous floating gardens.
With the isolation of the Aztec state from the rest of the world, and at the same time and by the State, it has been finished when the squad of Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes was allowed entry into Tenochtitlan. One can imagine the surprise of the Spaniards, is expected to meet with the "primitive barbarians" - their eyes appeared a huge rich city with wide streets and stunningly beautiful architecture.
Probably, greed, envy of the Spaniards to the wealth of citizens, as well as European diseases and advanced weaponry of the conquistadors led to the destruction of the Aztec state and the genocide of a great people, and a few years fell victim to European invaders of other Indian civilization ...
3. Inca Empire
The state of the Incas, which occupied the territory of modern Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, lasted more than three centuries - since the beginning of XIII-th to the end of the XVI-th, when the country came under the conquistadors Spaniard Francisco Pizarro.
The capital of the Inca Empire was located in the mountains, on the site of the modern city of Cusco. Due to the unusually high level at the time of the Incas managed to build an effective technology of agriculture system, turning the mountain slopes into fertile fields and developing technologies for their irrigation. The highest skill Inca architects evidence extant buildings of the city of Machu Picchu and other structures. On the basis of astronomical observations and their mathematical Inca system creates an accurate calendar, they developed their own writing system, have achieved notable successes in medicine and other sciences. Scientists are still scratching their heads, as a people, do not possess the modern tools and devices, it was possible to build architecture and engineering masterpieces. Relationship with European civilization was for the Incas (and other indigenous peoples of the Americas) of this tragedy - a large part of the population was wiped out by European diseases, the conquistadors weapon and start feuds of different tribes, and their cities were looted.
Such is the sad fate of the once powerful nation, whose dimensions are comparable with the major European and Asian countries, for example, what we call ...
4. The Persian Empire
The Persian Empire for centuries was one of the major players on the world political arena. With outstanding technology and knowledge, the Persians built a unique in its branching and the quality of road network linking the most developed city of the empire, which had developed no analogues sewerage system, have created the alphabet and numbers. They were the first to use the assimilation of the conquered peoples, instead of exterminating them, trying to make religious and cultural traditions of foreigners a part of their culture, so they managed to create one of the largest and most powerful nations on the planet, such examples in the history of mankind are quite rare, and one of them ...
5. The Macedonian Empire
His existence of this state, by and large, an obligation one person - Alexander the Great. His empire encompassed part of modern Greece, and Egypt, the territory of the former Achaemenid power and part of India. Alexander was able to subdue many countries thanks to his talent and the general high level of training of troops. Not the least role in the creation of the empire also played assimilation of the peoples of the occupied territories - marriages between soldiers of the Macedonian army and the representative of the local population. After the death of Alexander the Great's empire lasted about three centuries. As a result of the numerous conflicts between the heirs of the legendary conqueror of the country it broke up and most of it was a part of another great country called ...
6. The Roman Empire
The Roman civilization was born in the city-states on the territory of modern Italy, the main of which was, of course, Rome. The empire was formed under the strong influence of Greek civilization - the Romans borrowed from the Greeks, many of the ideas of the state and social system, which they were able to successfully implement, resulting in on the world map there was one of the greatest empires in the history of mankind. Under the rule of the Caesars disparate regions of Italy were united, but due to success of the Roman generals young state gradually became the most influential empire of the world, includes modern Italy, Spain, Greece, France, large parts of Germany and Great Britain, region of North Africa (including - Egypt) and vast areas of the Middle East.
The victorious progress of the Roman world prevented the collapse of the empire into western and eastern parts. History of the Western Roman Empire ended in the 476th year, the Eastern Roman Empire, which is also called the Byzantine, lasted almost a thousand years longer - until 1453, the year.
Unified Roman Empire was one of the largest states in the history of mankind, only a few giants surpassed in size it, for example ...
7. The Mongol Empire
The state covers the most extensive in the history of the adjacent territory, came into being at the behest of the great Mongol military leader, whose name has become almost synonymous with successful aggressive policy. The history of Genghis Khan Empire lasted a little more than one and a half centuries, from 1206, the year of 1368-th - in the meantime under the authority of the first Great Khan and his successors were the territory of modern Russia, India, China and some Eastern European countries, with a total area of occupied lands It was about 33 million km2. The military successes of the Mongols explained, first of all, the extensive use of cavalry - at their opponents simply did not have a chance to deal with the countless hordes of skilled riders, appearing as if from nowhere and smashes the infantry to shreds.
To continue the policy of conquest of the Mongols kept the death of the Great Khan Ugadei, the third son of Genghis Khan. Who knows - if not a coincidence, perhaps, Western Europe would have met with all the "charms" of the Mongol invasion. During the struggle for power of several Mongolian political leaders, the empire was divided into four states - the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate in the Middle East, Yuan Empire in China and the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia.
It is worth noting that the Mongols were not mindless barbarians, what they often try to introduce western historians in their works. In the occupied territories they administered rather humane in relation to indigenous laws - for example, strictly forbidden to pursue the locals for their religious beliefs. Such progressive domestic policy would be necessary to learn such elite of a country like ...
8. Ancient Egypt
Located in the Nile River valley state in various forms existed for more than 4 thousand years. The history of Egyptian civilization devoted countless studies and thousands of books and documentary films, but scientists continue to argue about the technology and knowledge of the ancient Egyptians, which allowed them to create, for example, the famous pyramids of Giza and other wonders of architectural thought.
Ancient Egypt flowering period is characterized by the highest level of development of the traditional religion of the Egyptian language, medicine, architecture, agricultural technology, mathematics and various arts. Egypt is one of three ancient states on the planet, among them - the Sumerian civilization and India, the latter is also called ...
9. The Harappan civilization
India civilization is not as well known as ancient Egypt, although both countries have formed around the same time - in the middle of the fourth millennium BC. The period of civilization, was situated on the territory of present-day Pakistan, covering more than a thousand years.
One of the distinguishing features of the Harappan civilization can be regarded as a peaceful, constructive policy of the authorities, with both internal and external.
While the rulers of other countries have fought wars and intimidated its citizens, considering the main instrument for strengthening the power of violence, the first persons of the state Harappan all their efforts on the development of the society, strengthening the economy and improving technology.
Archaeologists claim that in the study of Indian civilization settlements, they found only a small number of weapons, while completely missing the human remains with signs of violent death, that allows us to conclude the peace-loving states Indies.
Harapptsy lived in a clean, well-planned cities with sewerage and water supply systems, almost every home has a bathroom and a toilet. Unfortunately, we know little about the Indian civilization, but the available information indicates that it was one of the most advanced countries of the time.
Goodwill and peacefulness were also characteristic of the people, to establish a state on the islands of the Caribbean - we know it under the name ...
Aravaca - the collective name of a group of peoples who inhabited the islands of the Caribbean and northern South America. It was the first of the Arawak Indian tribes met with Christopher Columbus on his arrival in the New World. According to various estimates, during the first expedition
© Christopher Columbus
Columbus Island Arawak population ranged from 300 to 400 thousand people, although some sources are other figures - up to several million.
With its advanced culture, the Arawaks were very friendly to each other and to strangers - on the testimony of members of the expedition, the natives shouting approaching their island European courts "Taínos!", Which is translated from the local dialect means "peace." Hence it went second common name island Arawak tribes - Taino.
Taino were engaged in trade, agriculture, fishing and hunting, unlike many other Indian tribes, they almost did not take part in military conflicts. The only people with whom the Arawaks were enemies, were cannibals who lived on the territory of the modern state of Puerto Rico.
Arawakan civilization is characterized by the highly organized structure of society, its hierarchy, as well as a commitment to universal values of the population - for example, the Arawak women have the right to refuse a man in a marriage that was unheard of for the Indians, however, as for many Europeans at the time.
With the arrival of the conquerors state Arawak quickly went into decline - the population in times decreased due to the lack of immunity to diseases of the Old World and the armed conflict with the Spaniards. Currently Taino considered extinct, although some Caribbean islands remains of the culture of this once highly developed civilization.