As the astronauts prepared to work in open space
• How to prepare astronauts to work in open space
During the spacewalks the astronauts work in conditions of weightlessness. Of course, they need to pre-prepare this. But how to do it on Earth with its force of gravity?
You can, of course, upload them on the plane and the pilot asked to make a "parabola Kepler". It's when the plane gains altitude 6000 meters, then suddenly takes off at 45 to 9000, and as abruptly falls down. But this is, firstly, expensive, and secondly, not everyone is able to pilot a maneuver, thirdly, weightlessness thus lasts from 22 to 28 seconds. Because of this method is used only in the initial stages as a reference.
You can still use the centrifuge - at the time of a sharp change in trajectory is also zero-gravity can be achieved. But too long. And there is perhaps more expensive than a plane.
Oddly enough, it was not necessary to climb high up to solve the problem. Conditions as close to weightlessness, perfectly imitates ordinary water. Therefore, in 1980 in the Cosmonaut Training Center. Yuri Gagarin was built buoyancy. In the 30 years of its existence, the astronauts have been here more than 65 000 hours of training, and those who subsequently visited in this space, agreed: sense of identity of at least 95%.
Buoyancy - is a complex hydraulic structure with a complex technological equipment, special systems, equipment and machinery. The main part of the building is a huge buoyancy tank 23 meters in diameter, about 12 deep. Five thousand tons of unique in its composition of water with a temperature of about 30 degrees. Inside the pool movable platform lifting capacity of 40 tons. She secured the overall layout of the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS), the spacecraft "Soyuz TMA" and other equipment placed at the station.
During dives astronauts use so-called ventilation layouts suits, the only difference is that from the actual connection to an external air source. Accordingly, the backpack life support system is replaced by the overall layout. Since the operation of the water associated with some danger in astronauts suits accompany divers in light diving equipment.
Dive into the water creates an environment very similar to the state of weightlessness. There is even a special term - "gidronevesomost". In the context of this study gidronevesomosti future astronauts to work in space and exploring the outdoor unit modules of the ISS. It also tested a different technique.
An additional similarity with airless space provided special water properties. Water from such a small density of no more than anywhere else, in fact it is distilled. In addition, the outside pool on the technical floors are arranged in a special way the powerful spotlights, highlighting that also adds the sensation of complete lack of any substance around. One word - space.
By the walls of the perimeter located 45 portholes through which you can conduct kinofotosemku and visual observation of the activity of astronauts during training. "Exposure" in the neutral buoyancy is not constant: it is immersed in the pool those modules that are used for training at the moment. Special mechanism lifts the platform from the bottom to the surface, the waste is removed and put another. The identity of the iron - one hundred percent. Before each Gadget, hooks up to each and every millimetrika
The platform on which a briefing is held - it is like the main part of the ISS. And from her already depart various offshoots - Modules
To the left - a multifunctional laboratory module, MLM. Designed for scientific experiments. The space was not until the first time just fly in September with Elena Serova - the first Russian woman in space over the past 15 years. On the right (on the top picture it in the lower left corner) - MIM-1 module, also known as "mini-research module"
Recently, cosmonaut Oleg Kotov in his blog wrote that the new ISS module MLM already waiting
Before MIMom- airlock. Right now it worked through the task of transferring it to a mime on MLM. Its mission - to scientific experiments in outer space without leaving a person. It works on the principle of the torpedo tube: from the ship to a special area set equipment, the process of locking, the door opens and a platform leaves out
By the way, the yellow crane on the opposite side - not for handling modules. They cling to the very astronaut, this is how it looks (Press and Information Office of the CPC)
ISS itself, by the way, at the moment looks like. According to the instructor of the Center, diving specialist MES, senior instructor-diver of the Navy of the Russian Federation, honored test of space technology and fighter pilot with 13 years experience of Valery Nesmeyanova, quite possibly, in the future, the spacecraft will be assembled directly on the orbit, "not to take out each just such a monstrous mass of Earth "
In the center part of the module "SM" - service module. This is the main module where the astronauts live. There are their cabins, and there they spend most of the time. This is particularly the part on which practiced experiments that literally held June 19 in the open space
hollow inside layouts. For training need only the outer surface
Yellow rail (on the previous pictures of well visible) - the so-called transition route. It is for them the astronauts move around the outside of the station, protecting themselves with two carabiners. In training, in the light diving equipment is such an exercise - remove fins and crawl on this railing. Obviously, you do not need to be an astronaut, to repeat such
The chance to see exactly what he sees the astronaut during the exit, there is absolutely every
However, the bulk of training is still being held in spacesuits. he called the "Orlan-MK-GN" and work in it very much, even very, very hard. For example, one compression gloves - a force of 16 kg. How many compressions to do, moving on the rail? Plus still work to do, where to turn nuts and so on ...
"It is believed that it is during the time of Gagarin was dangerous. No, guys, space is dangerous now. In December, here's the news saying - set a new record for the duration of exit into open space, 8:00, cheers. And not a word that is planned, it was 6:00! "
In principle, our astronauts have long been coming to the turn of the 8-hour work, but in normal conditions. It is very important to the proper distribution of forces - the most difficult in the beginning, and the rest for later. Plus psychological readiness, because from the point of view of physiology already 3 hours in the suit - is the limit.
"I have a lot of work in a spacesuit, and after 3 hours is not just difficult - is already hurt. He iron! And after six I just willed it shifted: just think that now need to squeeze his hand and causes the muscles to do so. Physical training will not help here - you will die after 3 hours, you just take this suit. Only willpower, only attitude that will have to overcome the pain, "- says Valery And in that time, just after 6 hours of banal failure occurred. It was at that moment when he had to go back. And so it happened "new record" - the guys just saved station.
In the lobby SHKOM broadcast image from the ISS. Specifically, at this moment - American chamber
By the way, in December hydrolaboratory closed for major repair, so if there was a desire to go into outer space, it is desirable to implement as soon as possible
A crew of our ship saying goodbye to you, finally, again quoting our wonderful guide:
"When I sit here behind this barbed wire, all the problems of production, to be honest, we think that our space industry is not interesting. But looking at your eyes, I think it will be on the Mars and apple blossom. And you bring us the apple ".