10 mysterious phenomena of the brain that we are only beginning to understand
How it works?
Mind - thing mysterious and changeable, but what would we be without him? Nevertheless, logic leads us sometimes, and eye contact play dirty tricks. The brain is difficult to learn, and this applies not only to general scientific advances, but also strange psychic phenomena. For example, everyone is familiar with deja vu, but the brain every day throws us other phenomena, which we sometimes do not even notice.
1. How does the "brainwashing"?
"Brainwashing" completely changes the way or what a person thinks. Sometimes this method is used not for good purposes - for example, prisoners of war, abductees and other people who are in a position of subordination. But this is, in fact, already an extreme form of "brainwashing."
Firstly, the "brainwashing" - is the destruction of all, in that the victim believes. It is necessary to start with a clean slate, to print new thoughts, ideas and values. This strange combination of mental and physical abuse, plus the promise of a speedy deliverance from persecutors, so that the conditions are ideal for the manipulation. Once broken man begins to believe that in all respects was not right, he begins to rely on human judgment, that just broke it to regain at least some view of the world.
As we have said, the above technique - this is an extreme case. There are other methods of "brainwashing", less obvious, but occurring on a daily basis. These could be considered advertising, designed expressly for manipulating and changing the way of thinking. Any organization or agency that recruit people into their ranks, resorting to public advocacy. Sometimes even trying to manipulate you friends "washed" your brain, however, in the form of light.
How to actually work "brainwashing," little is known. It not determined how successful different methods, because the official tests for obvious reasons, are considered a violation of ethics. Almost everything we know about it and told the prisoners, but the question remains still a lot - for example, how these methods are effective and how long are. soldiers study could not definitively answer these questions, but it seems to be largely independent of human consciousness and his strength of character.
2. Why some people are not able to recognize faces?
Prosopagnosia - a disorder in which a person can not know and recognize faces, with even the faces of friends or relatives. The disorder may also manifest itself as an inability to recognize the facial expression, age of the person or establish eye contact.
Suffering from prosopagnosia people have difficulty with the processing of other visual signals, for example, hardly recognize landmarks or inanimate objects related to some person (for example, do not know someone's car or house), and at times may even experience difficulty in identifying animals.
For a long time it was thought that prosopagnosia - the result of a head injury, but now we know that about 2% of people with this disorder are born. It is believed that congenital prosopagnosia is caused by a defect of the brain responsible for recognizing objects and further use of this information - the fusiform gyrus. But even with new knowledge prosopagnosia is difficult to diagnose because the person often finds other ways to get to know people, to compensate for their inability to recognize faces.
3. How can we concentrate on the sounds we need in the midst of the noise?
The cocktail party effect - it is our innate ability to separate important information from the background noise. For example, carry on a conversation with one person in the middle of a crowded room, where all the talking. This phenomenon has been difficult to study because check the exact neurological response to a specific stimulus is difficult, but something that science has been able to figure out.
Researchers at the University of California at San Francisco have connected a network of electronic sensors directly to the brain the brain of patients suffering from a severe form of epilepsy that brain surgery was scheduled. Then they were asked to listen to the recorded conversation, noisy, and the computers at that time was recorded their brain activity. The researchers were not only able to determine that they had heard the subjects, but also know that the brain is tuned only to the speech of a certain type. Instead of filtering out information such as background conversations or music, hearing aids simply ignored her. These data may be useful for treating problems associated with autism and impaired sensory information processing. Also, the data show that our brains for a long time knows what modern voice recognition technology still can not - focus on one source signal.
4. Why should we often dream about things that we have done in the same day?
This phenomenon is called the effect of "Tetris": if you spend a lot of time doing a monotonous activity like playing "Tetris" One night you dreamed it. There are a logical reason - this is not a sign that you just overdo.
Researchers from Harvard Medical School suggested that when you dream about something, what did you do during the day, your brain uses sleep-related pause to secure the behavior that you are so fond of during wakefulness. Study participants played "Tetris" for several hours a day and the second night most dreamed familiar falling blocks.
The researchers concluded that the first day of the brain did not realize the need to learn something new, but with repeated prolonged gaming sessions "flicked the switch" and it caused information processing during sleep.
The group, consisting of both those new to the game, and from experienced players, showed the same results. Another test group, consisting of people with memory disorders, such an effect is not demonstrated. This proves that dreams of "Tetris" is not a sign of "tetrisovoy addiction" - just the brain continues to learn, while the rest of us off for the night.
5. Why do we see nonexistent patterns?
APOPHENIA - a technical term to describe the widespread experience, when you see a picture, which actually does not exist: for example, we see someone's face in a piece of burnt bread, or spot. Therefore, we in the warm sunny day can lie on the grass and guess what it is like clouds.
The first hints of what it is at the same time makes the brain came from a very different study - "the spirits of votes." Latvian psychologist Konstantins Raudive wrote down what he called "talking spirits" and that the rest of the world called "static noise". Other scientists are not too serious about the Raudive claims that he heard in his notes some coherent voice, but then realized that he thus illustrated the brain's ability to organize and process the information so that it acquires a meaning for us.
Our survival as a species is largely dependent on the ability to piece together fragmented information to create an overall picture. This ability is so ingrained in the brain that sometimes he is seriously mistaken in trying to recognize images and as a result a person sees on the trunks of trees or clouds.
6. Is multitasking effective?
The ability to multitask often promoted at work, but recent studies show that it is not as effective as people think. Neuroimaging spent during multi-tasking, found that instead of a time to perform multiple tasks, people just switch from one task to another. By the way, and there was a term "to switch to the task."
Multitasking is not very effective, despite the fact that many people still believe that the more things to do at the same time, the faster will achieve the goals and get results. In fact, multitasking is fraught with the loss of efficiency of up to 40% during the day. You can consider yourself more productive and successful, but at the end of the day certainly tired stronger, but in addition also upset because of how little time to do. But multi-tasking is different: for example, physical activity does not interfere with intellectual activity - so we can listen to an audio book while walking the dog. The disadvantage of this type of multitasking is that it severely limits our perception of the world.
7. Why brainstorming does not work?
At first glance, brainstorming may seem a great way to find new ideas and creative approach to solving the problem, but in fact it has the opposite effect - while brainstorming a person becomes less creative and focused on the development of the ideas of others, and does not offer his own. There are several reasons that brainstorming does not work, but the main reason is that people are very, very lazy.
Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin called it "social dashing": people just are present at a brainstorming session, listen to others' ideas, and occasionally make their own, only slightly different from those already put forward. Others are hesitant to express their ideas for fear of being ridiculed group, especially after they hear some good suggestions.
It is easier to explain why you disagree with the other, than to take the risk and start to defend their own ideas. If we consider that most of brainstorming last much longer than usually lasts creative upsurge, the meeting needed to search for new ideas, but in reality all just annoying.
8. Is there a natural talent?
When it comes to natural talent, people begin to contradict themselves. On the one hand, we are constantly told that we can do all that we can be anyone, if we work hard enough. On the other hand, some people seem to be simply created in the field of their choice - maybe they even have "natural talent". As usual, the truth lies somewhere in between. A graduate of the Juilliard School and youth instructor at Baldwin-Wallace College Deanna Richardson believes that the raw, natural talent not issue really exists. It manifests itself in young students, who are working on their own initiative, not throw up their hands and are interested in further development. But no raw talent can not develop without working on it.
Motivation and practices for the development of talent is very important - to become an expert in any field, it takes an average of ten years. Talent can be seen not so much as a tendency to a certain profession, but as a set of personal qualities that make a person more likely to succeed in a particular area.
Our personality and needs are constantly changing, and this is one reason why some people can not "discover" their hidden talents, have not yet become older. This happens when external factors (without incentives, coaches or mentors) are forced to go to the goal. And the purpose first need to ask ourselves.
9. Why disabilities feel phantom limb?
Many of the amputees reported that their limbs ache. Sometimes it is not the pain, but just a slight feeling. These phantom sensations often experience not only people with disabilities. You thought even once that your pocket is no longer the phone, or, on the contrary, you are angry, when he felt that he was calling on the silent mode, and then realized that no one will call? This is the same effect.
Researchers at Vanderbilt University have found that different parts of the brain associated with certain parts of the body, such as an arm or leg. When the limb is removed, there exist in the brain due to remain active while the brain does not update the "body map" and get used to the fact that the limb is gone. People who feel phantom vibrations phone, developed similar neural structures. Strange, but for those people who do not part with your phone, the brain starts to recognize it as an appendage. This explains why it seems to us that we feel their phones and hear the call, even if you forgot your phone at home or in the car. This can be considered a cause for concern - this is how we are tied to technology.
10. Why do we see something, when turning a blind eye?
With this effect we are familiar, but as a rule, do not think about it. If you potrote closed my eyes, I "see" a virtual rainbow of colored shapes and lines. This is called phosphenes - eyes and brain work together, and as a result we see a strange visual markers.
We see phosphenes when there is no external visual stimulus. This may occur when you close your eyes or focus on some repetitive pattern, where distorted perspective - for example, on a dark highway at night. People spend a lot of time in the isolation tank or meditation, reported visions, which can be explained by phosphenes.
Temporary phosphenes may arise from the physical stimulation of the eye - for example, when you click on the eyeball. A serious events such as traumatic brain injury may create permanent phosphenes - in this case the person will constantly watch them, because the visual centers of the brain are active in the absence of external visual stimuli.
For example, when the patient is conscious undergo surgery on the brain, they are under electrical stimulation of different brain areas reported seeing phosphenes. In the study of blind people found out that they, too, see the phosphenes, with visions depend on which part of the visual system is damaged. Can see them not only people - animals, too, are capable of it.