Significant battles of the Second World War
World War II was the most terrible and bloody war in human history. The world was in a state of "total war". Anti-fascist coalition won but some of these battles are not always ended in victory. The article discusses ten battles that changed the course of the war.
The Battle for France
After in September 1939, the Germans conquered Poland, Hitler turned his attention to the west. Invasion of the Soviet Union was its main goal, but he knew that, first of all, you need to grab Western Europe to avoid a war on two fronts. First, it was necessary to capture the Netherlands (Holland, Luxembourg and Belgium) and France. Hypothetically, Germany could conquer Britain, re-deploying its troops in the East, and then take military action against the Russian.
The German army numerically superior army of the anti-fascist coalition. However, it did not matter, because the German plan was very effective. After the Germans invaded the Netherlands, the French army and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) moved north, face to face with the German forces. This allowed the German army to break through the defense of the coalition in the Ardennes and advance to the English Channel, but it was a trap. The Germans took Paris, France fell, and was evacuated at Dunkirk the British Expeditionary Force. The country was divided into a German occupation zone, which was introduced by the Vichy regime. Now Germany could concentrate and to strike at Britain
By the summer of 1944, the Red Army was already on the verge of Germany. There is no doubt that the Russian would single-handedly defeat of Nazi Germany, but Stalin put pressure on the West, there to create a second front and try to divert the attention of the Germans and to end the war quickly. Since 1942, the US Air Force and the Royal Air Force of Great Britain made a massive bombardment. The coalition led by the Mediterranean operation and in 1943 invaded Italy. However, it was necessary to fight off France to destroy the main force of the German army in northern Europe. Operation "Overlord" began with the landing of troops in Normandy in June 1944. By August, France had about 3 million troops of the anti-fascist coalition. Paris was liberated on August 25, and the German army was pushed back and September 30, they went to the river Seine. Germany was forced to reinforce its Western front, taking reinforcements to the Eastern Front. Anti-fascist coalition won a strategic victory. By September, the Western coalition forces approached the border of Germany. Nazi Germany surrendered less than a year. It was important that Western Europe could not control Russia, which is already going through its best times.
The Battle for Guadalcanal
The Battle of Guadalcanal or operation "Uotchtauer", was held from August 7, 1942 - February 9, 1943 in the Pacific theater of operations. The war was waged between the forces of the Allies and Japan. The fighting took place on the island of Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands).
August 7, 1942 the first units of the Allies landed on the islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi and Florida, to prevent the Japanese to use them as their bases, which were a threat to the United States, Australia and New Zealand. The Allies intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as a springboard. The initial landing caught the Japanese by surprise. Allies immediately able to capture the island of Tulagi and Florida, as well as an airfield on Guadalcanal (who later called Henderson Field).
Not expecting such an attack by the Allies, the Japanese made several attempts to regain Henderson Field. These attempts led to major battles, and as a result without the support of the Japanese. In December 1942, the Japanese began to evacuate its troops. Guadalcanal Campaign was very important knowledge, because it marked the loss of a strategic initiative of Japan and the Allies moved from defense to offense.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf
This is the most large-scale naval battle in history. The battle took place in the seas on the Philippine island from 23 to 26 October 1944 The battle was between the American and the Japanese fleet. The Japanese tried to push back the Allied forces that were located on the island of Leyte. First tactic of kamikaze was used in the war. As a result, the Allied fleet won a significant victory and was able to sink one of the largest battleships of the world - Musashi and damaged another battleship - Yamato. After this battle Joint Japanese Navy did not undertake major operations.
The Battle of Moscow
Hitler planned to capture Moscow. This capital was considered extremely important point in the military and in the political sense. The original plan was that it was necessary to capture Moscow for four months. Hitler and his coalition is taking the decision to seize the capital before winter. Weather conditions prevented the Germans, but in December they were almost 19 miles from Moscow. Then came the strong rains. And the temperature dropped sharply and reached -40. The German troops had no winter clothing, and the tanks were not designed to work in such low temperatures. December 5, 1941 Russian counterattacked, throwing back the German forces. For the first time the Germans retreated, and Operation Barbarossa was defeated.
The Battle of Kursk
The Battle of Kursk took place after the Battle of Stalingrad. The Germans wanted to break through the northern and southern flanks to encircle the Soviet troops. But the Soviet Union was aware of the intentions of Hitler, and began to prepare for the defense. The Germans arrested the offensive, since waiting for the tanks: Tiger and Panther, thus providing the Red Army more time to dig and gather forces for a counterattack. Protection around Kursk was 10 deeper than the Maginot Line. German troops launched an offensive on 5 July. It was the first time the blitzkrieg plan was defeated, not even breaking through the defenses. After the failed attack, the Red Army launched a counteroffensive. The war in Europe would last for another two years, but ended with the Battle of Kursk, the Americans and the British could invade Italy. Kursk, the Germans lost 720 tanks, 680 aircraft, and 170,000 people were killed. This battle was the largest tank battle in history. After three years of war, the Allies finally gained a strategic advantage.
The Battle of Midway
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan has begun preparations for the next operation against the United States in the Pacific. The aim was to destroy the United States of Japanese aircraft carriers and seizing Midway strategically important, located at equal distance from Asia and North America. The Americans were able to decipher the coded messages of the Japanese, and now the United States could prepare for the attack. June 3, 1942 battle of Midway began. With Midway flew combat aircraft, they began bombing and torpedoing of vremyasrazheny hiking in the air. In a battle won by the United States, and it was a turning point in the Pacific war.
the Nazi invasion of the USSR began June 22, 1941. The operation involved 8, 9 million men, over 18,000 tanks, 45,000 aircraft and artillery shells 50000. When the Germans went on the offensive, the Red Army was caught off guard. Non-aggression pact was signed to the German and Soviet invasion of Poland. Both countries invaded and occupied Poland, but Hitler always saw Russia as a source of agricultural, slave labor, oil and other raw materials. three army groups were formed; each of which had its task. The group was in the north should take Leningrad. On the central group it was to take Moscow, and in the south of the group should seize Ukraine and move east to the Caucasus. The Germans advanced rapidly. Major battles took place in Smolensk, Uman and Kiev. Panzer divisions could encircle and capture the three million Soviet soldiers by the time they got to Moscow. By December, they had surrounded Leningrad from the north, reached the outskirts of Moscow in the heart, and took Ukraine to the south.
The Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad - the decisive battle of the Second World War, in which Soviet troops won a great victory. This battle marked the beginning of radical change in the course of the Great Patriotic War and World War II as a whole.
Battle of Stalingrad can be subdivided into two periods: the defensive (July 17 - November 18, 1942) and offensive (from November 19, 1942 - February 2, 1943).
The Battle of Stalingrad has surpassed all the battles in world history: the duration, the number of people and military equipment. The battle took place on a vast territory. According to the results of this battle also surpassed all previous. Stalingrad, Soviet troops crushed the army of Germans, Romanians and Italians. In this battle the Germans lost 800,000 soldiers and officers, as well as a large amount of military equipment and supplies.
Battle of Britain
If the United Kingdom would be put out of the war, Hitler could concentrate all the military potential of Germany on the Soviet Union. America and the Soviet Union would have to deal with Hitler coalition, and "Operation Overlord" could and did not take place. For these reasons, the Battle of Britain, without a doubt is the most important battles of the Second World War. The British Expeditionary Force was successfully evacuated at Dunkirk. However, most of their equipment was left in France. Germany gained air superiority over Britain, and could begin operation Sea Lion (the invasion of the British Isles). The Royal Navy would be ineffective without air cover. The initial strategy of the Luftwaffe was to destroy the RAF. It was quite a good idea, but then the strategy has changed. And it gave the RAF a chance to win. Radar was important for America. Without it, the Royal Air Force would have to keep its planes in the air. They lacked the resources to do it. The radar would enable the troops to wait and coordinate the attack the Germans. By October 1940 at the Luftwaffe was a lack of equipment and crew. Hitler did not gain an advantage in the air and "Operation Sea Lion" foiled. This battle has allowed the UK to restore his strength. Once victory was on the side of the Allies, Winston Churchill said, "Never human conflicts were not so acute as it is now.