Traveling on the edge of the legendary - Maramures
• on the edge of the legendary journey - Maramures
Maramures - a legendary region, located in the north of Romania, surrounded by hills and mountains. The hallmark of this beautiful region is the excellent craftsmanship of artisans and the rich cultural life of the local population. It is believed that of all the Romanian provinces in Maramures and Bucovina is best feel the spiritual life, it is very well preserved interesting old rites and customs. Centuries-old traditions of their ancestors are part of everyday life here. The locals still dress in traditional costume, are unusual local traditional headgear.
In Maramures there is a continuous tradition of wooden architecture. Amazing maramureshanskaya wood carving has long gained deserved fame and impresses guests in the region. Almost every yard, every house is the local farmers as part of the picturesque and ancient village museum. Everything is decorated with ornaments: gate, gate, fence, house, outbuildings, Trinity at intersections of roads. Peak maramureshanskih arts masters are one of the most interesting religious buildings in the world - the wooden church. 8 wooden churches in Maramures region in the number included in the UNESCO World Heritage site. All were built in the XVII and XVIII centuries, but they are slightly different architectural style.
Let's learn more about them ...
Maramures called the soul of the Romanian village. With picturesque villages, green hills and meadows in Maramures personification of rural life in Romania. Visitors to this beautiful region offers the chance to travel back in time to witness a completely different era, a different way of life. Life here is simple and eliminates the more artificial and unnecessary, without which it often seems that it is impossible to live. Maramures, unique direction. For centuries, here carefully preserved the culture, traditions and way of life of the peasants from the past times. Maramures is a kind of covenant tradition, the romantic era of simplicity and moral values which nowadays we only read or hear from the grandfathers.
Few traditions have changed over the past centuries in Maramures. Families remain in the same villages, as their ancestors did. Crafts and traditions passed down from generation to generation. People's clothes are made by hand and wear it with pride. The Church continues to be the soul of the village. Neighbors know each other and help each other.
Life in Maramures region seems shrouded in mystery. Guests are Maramures mountain passes, descend into the valley where the village lively traditions are opened in front of them as the voskresnuvshy museum landscapes that appeal to even the most capricious traveler.
In the province of Maramures is currently divided into 2 parts: the northern Maramures belongs to Ukraine and southern Maramures - Romania. Archaeological excavations have shown that this area was inhabited since Neolithic times. Two thousand years ago, Maramures belonged dakam, the ancestors of the Romanian people. The remains of the Dacian fortresses have been found in many localities: Sighet, Onchesht, Slatina, Bîrsan. In the 2nd century AD the Romans conquered Dacia and Sarmizedzhetuza capital, but Maramures Romans never reached, there were tribes living free Dacian. Fleeing from the Roman occupation, in Maramures, and many come from the Dacians the western and central Dacia.
Maramures region on all sides surrounded by mountains and forests, and this has helped the local people to preserve their identity in the era of migrations Goths, Huns, Vandals, Slavs and other peoples. It is argued that it is the tradition, preserved in Maramures region, most are related to the cultural legacy of the Dacians. In the 20th century, Romanian ethnographers during a trip to the Maramures province, was surprised to discovered that "Duckie descended from Trajan's Column" and live here.
- Maramures documented for the first time mentioned in 1199. During that time already started the expansion of the Hungarians in Transylvania. In Maramures small principality there, led by the local governors.
- At the end of the 14th century Maramures was completely conquered by the Hungarian Kingdom.
- In 1353 the governor maramureshansky Dragos, voennokomanduyuschy subordinate to the Hungarian King Louis I, moved mountains and founded the Principality of Moldavia, a vassal of Hungary.
- In the 1359's another governor from Maramures, Bogdan from the area attacked Kuhya heirs Dragos and became the new ruler of the Principality of Moldavia. He rebelled against the king of Hungary and the Hungarian army was able to whiten. Thus, the governor of the Maramures region went down in history as the first head of the already independent Moldavian principality. His daughter Margareta was nicknamed Musat (beautiful in the old room. Language), was married to the governor Kostya and from here begins the famous in the history of Moldavian Principality Mushatinov dynasty. The greatest representative of this dynasty Stephen the Great (he is now considered the greatest Romanian in the history of this nation).
- In 1538, after the Hungarian defeat at the Battle of Mohacs Maramures was a part of Transylvania, Autonomous Principate, vassal of the Turkish Empire.
- Since 1688, Maramures is already becoming part of the Habsburg Empire.
- After the Treaty of Paris (1919), the northern part of Maramures goes to Czechoslovakia in 1939 - in Hungary, in 1945 - the Soviet Union, and since 1991 - to the Ukraine.
- Currently, in the northern Maramures in Ukraine live about 40 000 Romanians. The boundary that separates the northern Maramures (Ukraine) and southern Maramures (Romania) runs along the Tisza River. - In 1968, to the "old" Maramures region added neighboring areas: Baia Mare, Tara Chioarului, Tara Lapusului and Tara Codrului
The county of Maramures abundance of cultural, natural and historical attractions.
Maramures is known in Romania due to people's clothes, carpets, wooden products, traditional hat made of hay, kolyadnym masks, ceramics, icons painted on glass and wood, horinkoy (vodka from plums), folk dances, folk festivals and hospitable people.
The isolated location of the region contributed to the preservation of ancient traditions. National clothes - the pride Moroshan (resident Maramures province).
maintain a clean and sincere faith, the sacred traditions during the holidays, ceremonies, inherited from our ancestors. Together with Bukovina (painted monasteries edge), are the most Maramuresh archaic and authentic Romanian provinces. During the Easter and Christmas holidays many people in Romania are going to spend a vacation to the north, in Maramures and Bukovina into the next.
Maramures always been famous for skilled artisans, particularly the master carvers. Here there is a continuous tradition of wooden architecture. Maramureshanskaya woodcarving and ancient wooden churches are famous all over the world.
Why are only the famous maramureshanskie gates! These masterpieces of art!
Traveling through the Maramures, I want to stay in each village, in front of the houses of the peasants and enjoy the ornaments of houses and mysterious maramureshanskimi gate ornate traditional motifs and Christian symbols.
The wooden churches of Maramures are known throughout the world and is a spiritual treasure of local residents. 8 wooden churches of Maramures are included in the World Heritage List (UNESCO): Budesti, Desesti, Barsana, Poienile Izei, Ieud Deal, Surdesti, Plopis, Rogoz.
Maramures wooden church under the auspices of UNESCO are unique and high value architectural ensemble.
8 These sites are connected to the rest of the 85 wooden churches of Maramures county, most of them built in the 17-18 centuries. The original architecture of the churches due to the mixing of elements of Byzantine and Western European architecture, Byzantine plan with Gothic expression, in which building material - wood - depicts the skill and ability of local folk artists. Very valuable is the interior wall paintings. Maramures wooden churches are open as a museum, but they are active, they still hold the service.
The wooden church of the old convent Bîrsan devoted to "entering the Blessed Virgin Mary in the church" and was built in 1711 in a place called "monk's hair" (Părul Călugărului) local priest, together with his sons and villagers, to thank God for protection during the plague . Around 1739 the church was moved to the valley of Iza in the cemetery, which appeared in 1717 after a battle with the Tartars. The second time, the church was moved in 1795 in the center of the cemetery died during the plague in 1742.
Then the interior of the church was painted under the influence of Baroque and Rococo painter Hodor Toader (Hodor Toader). Here you can see scenes from the Bible, the Last Judgment, the Old Testament and "The Passion of Jesus Christ." Unfortunately, the paintings were severely damaged and has not survived to the present day. Still, we can now see that it was possible to save.
But the rich carvings of the church perfectly preserved.
The interior of the church, its external and internal appearance, all that remained for centuries, testify to the genius of artisans and artists who created all this beauty.
Church of the Nativity of the Virgin was built in the village of Judea by local craftsmen in the early XVIII century. This is one of the most beautiful wooden churches in Romania. Despite its rather austere architectural style, the church is very elegant.
The frescoes of the artist Alexandru Ponehalschi 1782 cover almost entire inner surface of the church, including the doors.
codex, dated 1391-1392, the city is believed to be the oldest manuscript in the Romanian language in Cyrillic letters was discovered in 1925 in the attic of the church. Now, this manuscript is kept in the library of the Romanian Academy in Bucharest.
Church of St. Nicholas in Budesti built by local residents in 1643. It has been preserved almost in its original form. This church is the most striking example of a typical church of Maramures and striking in its monumentality. This is the biggest church in the history of Maramures.
On the creation of this beauty we worked not only artists, but also the best wood carvers. For example, the front door
And of course, painted on the walls and ceiling. The church interior is impressive.
Here a large collection of wooden icons XVII-XVIII centuries, and even older, and most valuable collection of icons on glass.
The oldest wooden church in Maramures Church of St. Paraskeva in Poienile Izei was built in 1604.
The internal space of the church was enlarged in the XVIII century, and fully painted it was in 1794.
The Church has always been a place where people gather for prayer, as well as the place where the village wise men met to make a decision in difficult times. From the church tower could watch the enemy, and the church bell warned people about fires, floods and other calamities impending over the village. Dead buried around the temple in accordance with the hierarchy. In many churches preserved the sacred books and manuscripts, priceless icons, battle flags. In these churches for centuries crowned lovers, baptized children, funeral of the dead and celebrating the brightest holidays .... the whole life of many generations of Maramures was somehow connected to the church.