Russian 19th century - oil paintings
What it is actually drawn on the famous Russian paintings.
Nikolai Nevrov. "Bargaining. Scene from a serf life." 1866
One landowner sells the land to another girl. Impressively shows the purchaser five fingers - five hundred rubles. 500 rubles - the average price of Russian serfdom in the first half of the 19th century. Sold by the girls - a European-educated gentleman. The paintings on the walls, books. The girl obediently waiting for their fate, others slaves crowded into the doorway and watch what the outcome of bargaining. Yearning.
Vasily Perov. "Rural procession on Easter." 1861
Russian village of the 19th century. Orthodox Easter. All are drunk in the trash, including a priest. Dude in the center bears the icon upside down and is about to fall. Some have already fallen. Fun! The essence of the picture - the Russian people's commitment to Orthodoxy exaggerated. Commitment to alcohol is clearly stronger. Perov was a recognized master of genre painting and portraiture. But this picture of him in Tsarist Russia was forbidden to display and playback. Censorship!
Gregory Myasoedov. "Zemstvo dinner". 1872
The time of Alexander II. Serfdom was abolished. Introduced by the local government - zemstvo. Farmers to get too choose. But between them and the higher classes - the abyss. So - dining apartheid. Lord - in the house, with the waiters, peasants - under the door.
Fyodor Vasilyev. "Village". 1869
1869. The landscape is beautiful and the village, if you look closely, poverty-stricken. Squalid home, leaky roofs, the road is buried in the mud.
Jan Hendrik Verheijen. "The Dutch village with figures of people." 1st floor. 19th century.
Well it is, for comparison
Alex KORZUKHIN. "The Return of the city." 1870
The atmosphere in the house of a poor, shabby on the floor crawling child, a daughter older dad brought from modest fairing - a bunch of bagels. However, many children in the family - just a picture of three plus possibly another in a makeshift cradle.
Sergey Korovin. "In the world". 1893
This is the end of the 19th century village. The fortress is no more, but there was a bundle - fists. At the village meeting - some dispute between the poor and the fist. For the poor theme, apparently, it is vitally important, he is almost crying. Rich fist laughs over it. Other fists in the background, too, giggling over the loser-rogue. But the poor fellow to the right of it was filled with words. Two finished Kombed members already have left to wait for 1917.
Vasily Maximov. "The auction for back taxes." 1881-82 years.
Tax lyutuet. Royal officials let the hammer samovars, iron pots and other peasant possessions. The most heavy taxes on peasants were indemnity payments. Alexander II "the Liberator" is actually freed the peasants for money - they then for many years had to pay the native state of the plots of land they were given, along with the will. In fact, the land was from the peasants in the past, they used it for many generations, while they were serfs. But when were free - they were forced to pay for this land. The board had to be made in installments, right up to 1932. In 1907, against the backdrop of revolution, the authorities abolished these charges.
Vladimir Makovsky. "On the Boulevard". 1886-1887, the
At the end of the 19th century. Russia came in industrialization. Young people riding in town. There she goes the roof. Former life they are no longer interesting. And this young laborer - are not interested in even his wife, peasant, came to him out of the village. It is not advanced. Girl in horror. Proletary with accordion - all shown in FIG.
Vladimir Makovsky. "Date". 1883
The poverty of the village. The boy gave "to the people." E. Was sent to the city to work on a master who exploits child labor. Mother came to visit his son. Besides obviously life is bad enough, the mother sees everything. The kid eats greedily had brought a loaf of bread.
And Vladimir Makovsky. "The collapse of the bank." 1881
The crowd defrauded investors in the bank office. All in shock. Rogue banker (right) quietly dumps with the loot. The policeman looks the other way, such as not seeing it.
Pavel Fedotov. "Fresh cavalier". 1846
The young officer received the first order. We washed overnight. The next morning, wearing a cross on the right gown, demonstrates his cook. Mad view complete arrogance. Cook, embodies the people looking at him with irony. Fedotov was a master of psychological patterns. The meaning of this: no flashing lights on the machines, and in their heads.
More Pavel Fedotov. "Breakfast is an aristocrat." 1849-1850.
Morning, an impoverished nobleman caught unawares unexpected guests. Your breakfast (a piece of black bread), he hastily covers the French novel. Nobles (3% of the population) were privileged class in the old Russia. Owned vast amounts of land in the country, but a good farmer from them gets rare. Not the master's business. As a result - poverty, debt, and all laid repledged banks. In Chekhov's "The Cherry Orchard" landowner Ranevskaya estate sold for debts. Buyers (rich merchants) derbanit estate, and one very necessary manor cherry orchard (to resell under the garden). Reason Ranevskayas family problems - doing nothing for several generations. No one involved in the manor, and the mistress last 5 years living abroad and littered with money.
Boris Kustodiev. "Merchant". 1918
The provincial merchant class - a favorite theme among Kustodiev. While the nobles in Paris squandered possessions, these people were raised from the bottom, making money in a huge country where you where to put your hands and capital. It is noteworthy that the picture painted in 1918, when kustodievskih merchants and bills of sale across the country already being put to the wall of the wrestlers with the bourgeoisie.
Ilya Repin. "Religious Procession in Kursk Province". 1880-1883 gg.
On the procession out the different layers of society, and Repin painted them all. Ahead carry a lantern with candles, followed by - the icon, then go to the best people - officials in uniform, priests in gold, merchants, nobles. On each side - the protection (on horseback), then - the common people. People on roadsides ogrebaet periodically so as not to undercut the heads and not climb on its band. Tretyakov in the picture did not like the policeman (right, in white, with all the dope Lupita whip someone from the crowd). He asked the artist to remove the Cop chaos of the plot. Repin but refused. A picture of the Tretyakov bought anyway. Over 10 000, which was just enormous sum at the time.
Ilya Repin. "Gatherings". 1883
But these young guys on the other picture Repin - no longer go with the crowd on all sorts of processions. They have their own way - terror. This is the "People's Will", a clandestine organization of revolutionaries, who killed Tsar Alexander II.
Nikolai Bogdanov-Belsky. "Mental calculation. In folk school SA Racha". 1895
Rural School. Peasant children in sandals. But the desire to learn - there. Teacher - European suit and tie. This is a real man - Sergei Raczynski. Mathematician, a professor at Moscow University. Voluntarily taught in a rural school in the village. Tatevo (now Tver region.), Where he had an estate. Great deal. According to the population census of 1897, the literacy rate in Russia was only 21%.
Jan Matejko. "Clad Poland". 1863
According to the 1897 census, the literacy was 21%, while the Great in the country - 44%. Empire! Ethnic relations in the country have never been smooth. The painting by Polish artist Jan Matejko was written in memory of the anti-Russian uprising in 1863 Russian officers with the evil mugs shackle Woman (Poland), defeated, but not broken. Behind her sits another girl (blonde), which symbolizes Lithuania. Her dirty paw another Russian. Pole Right, sitting face to the viewer - the spitting image of Dzerzhinsky.
Nikolay Pimomenko. The victim of fanaticism. 1899
The painting izbrazhen a real case that was in Kremenets (Rec. Ukraine). She fell in love with a Ukrainian-Jewish blacksmith. Young decided to get married bride's transition to Christianity. This bothered the local Jewish community. They behaved extremely intolerant. Parents (right in the picture) disowned his daughter, and the girl was subjected to obstruction. The victim in the neck can see the cross in front of her with his fists, Rabbi, after him - the public concerned with clubs.
Franz Roubaud. "Storm aul Gimry". 1891
The Caucasian War of the 19th century. Witch's brew dagov Chechens and the royal army. Aul Gimry (native village of Shamil) fell 17 October 1832 By the way, since 2007 in the village again Gimry valid counterterrorist operation. Latest (at the time of writing this post) riot police sweep was April 11, 2013 The first - in the picture below:
Vasily Vereshchagin. "Opiumoedy". 1868
Vereshchagin painting was done in Tashkent during one of the Turkestan campaigns of the Russian army. Central Asia was then attached to Russia. Which saw participants hikes ancestors of the present migrant workers - this left Vereshchagin painting and memoirs. Dirt, poverty, dope ...
Peter Belousov. "We'll go another way!". 1951
And finally the main event in the history of Russia of the 19th century. April 22, 1870 in Simbirsk was born Vladimir Ulyanov. His older brother, Narodnaya Volya, tried his hand, was in the field of individual terror - are preparing an attempt on the king. But the attempt fell through and brother hanged. That's when a young Volodya according to legend the mother said: "We will go the other way!". And they went.