The history and myths of the construction of the Moscow State University
Erection during 1949-1953. the main building of Moscow State University on Lenin (Sparrow) Hills was one the largest construction projects of the postwar Soviet Union. Before the advent of "Triumph Palace" building was the highest administrative and residential building in Moscow, and to the construction in 1990, Basler Messerturm in Frankfurt - also the tallest building in Europe. Height - 182 m, with a spire - 240 m, floors central body - 36 school students young workers on the background of the main building under construction the Moscow State University (1951)
In 1948, the staff of Department of the Communist Party, oversaw science, got out of the Kremlin task: to study the issue of building a new building for the MSU. Memorandum they had prepared together with the Rector of the University - academician Nesmeyanov proposing to build a "temple of Soviet science" skyscraper. Of the Central Committee of the paper moved to the Moscow authorities. Soon Nesmeyanova and a representative of the "scientific" the Central department invited the City Party Committee: "Your idea is unrealistic. For high-rise elevators need too much. Therefore, the building should be no higher than 4 floors. "
A few days later Stalin held a special meeting on "the issue of university", and he announced his decision: to build for MSU building height of not less than 20 floors on top of the Lenin Hills - to far away to be seen.
the new University building projects are ready famous Soviet architect Boris lofan who invented the skyscraper Palace of the Soviets. However, a few days before the approval of "the highest levels" of the architect's drawings of this work was suspended. Creating the largest of Stalin's skyscrapers was charged a group of architects led by LV Rudnev.
The reason for the sudden replacement believe Iofana intransigence. He was going to build the main building just above the cliff Lenin Hills. But by the fall of 1948, experts have managed to convince Stalin that such an arrangement is fraught with huge buildings catastrophe: the area is dangerous in terms of landslides, and a new university simply will slide into the river! Stalin agreed with the need to transfer the main building of Moscow State University away from the edge of the Lenin Hills, but Iofana this option does not suit, and he was removed. Rudnev moved the building to 800 meters inland, and the place chosen Iofanom, made the observation deck.
In the original sketch variant was supposed to crown skyscraper sculpture of impressive dimensions. figure of a man with his head to the sky battened down and spread wide apart his hands - a character on the sheets of paper abstract was depicted. Apparently, this posture should symbolize the desire for knowledge. Although architects showing Stalin drawings hinted that sculpture may receive the portrait similarity with the leader. However, Stalin ordered to erect a statue instead of the spire to the top of the building of the Moscow State University was similar to the other six high-rise buildings being built in the capital.
The ceremony of laying the first stone of a tall building of Moscow State University was held April 12, 1949, exactly 12 years before Gagarin's flight.
The reports from the impact of construction on the Lenin Hills reported that high-rise erected 3000 Komsomol Stakhanovite. However, in reality it worked here a lot more people. Specifically "a university" at the end of 1948 in the Ministry of Internal Affairs prepared an order on parole from the camps of several thousand inmates who had construction specialty. This cons had to spend the rest of life in the construction of the Moscow State University.
The system of the Gulag existed "Construction-560", transformed in 1952 in the management ITL Special Region (the so-called "Stroylag"), which was engaged in the construction of a contingent of high-rise buildings of the university. He oversaw the construction, General Komorowski, Head of industrial construction camps. The number of prisoners in the "Stroylage" reached 14290 people. Almost all of them were sitting on the "everyday" items "political" afraid to drive to Moscow. Zone with watchtowers and barbed wire was built a few kilometers from the "object", near the village of Ramenky, in the area of present Michurinsk prospectus.
When the construction of high-rise buildings coming to an end, it was decided to "bring your place of residence and work of prisoners." The new camp was equipped with a point right at the 24th and 25th floors of the tower under construction. This solution allows you to save and protection: there is no need of any guard towers, no barbed wire - still have nowhere to go.
As it turned out, the guards have underestimated their mentoring contingent. I found among prisoners craftsman, who in the summer of 1952 he built a kind of glider made of plywood and wire and ... Further events fame treated differently. According to one version, he was able to fly to the other side of the Moscow River and escaped safely. On the other - it is still in the air the guards shot. There is a variant with a happy end of the story: that "flyer" is already on the ground grabbed KGB, but when his act became known to Stalin personally ordered the brave inventor let go ... It is even possible that the fugitives were two cruise. At least, so says the civilian builder of skyscrapers, which he saw two people planning a tower on homemade wings. According to him, one of them shot and left in the direction of the second Luzhniki.
With a unique "high-altitude camp area" has another unusual story. This incident was considered even if the assassination attempt on the leader of the nations. One day the guards vigilant, checking the area "near-garden" in Kuntsevo Stalin, suddenly I found a track rifle bullet. Who fired? When? Turmoil was serious. We conducted a ballistic examination and found that the ill-fated shot flew under construction ... with the University. In the course of further investigation it became clear picture of what happened. At the next changing of the guard, guards prisoners, one of the guards, handing over the post, pulled the rifle trigger, the barrel of which turned out to live round. A shot rang out. By law, meanness weapon was directed toward the government facility located far away and the bullet still "fell short" to Stalin's dacha.
The main building of Moscow State University immediately broke many records. Height of high-rise 36-storey reaches 236 meters. For the steel frame of the building it took 40 thousand tons of steel. And for the erection of walls and parapets it took nearly 175 million bricks. The spire has a height of about 50 meters, and crowning his star weighs 12 tons. On one side of the tower is a clock-champions - the biggest in Moscow. Faces are made of stainless steel and have a diameter of 9 meters. The clock is also very impressive. Minute, for example, twice as long clockwise Kremlin chimes and has a length of 4, 1 meter, and weighs 39 kilograms.
View from the Moscow State University building, 1952 .:
The private sector in the area of construction.
Local residents were subject to resettlement.
Prior to the grand opening of "Temple of Science" September 1, 1953, Stalin did not live a few months. Had he lived a little longer, and Moscow State University would become a place of "Lomonosov" - "the name of Stalin." Plans for such a renaming took place. Shift Vasilyevich on Vissarionovich going to coincide in time for the start of the new building on the Lenin Hills. In winter, the 53rd has been prepared letters for the new name of the University, which was supposed to install a cornice over the main entrance to the high-rise building. But Stalin died and the project remained unfulfilled.
There are many myths about the main building of Moscow State University. So there is a version that in front of a conference room of the Academic Council (Rector's office) on the 9th floor of the four pillars of solid jasper posted allegedly survived the demolition of Christ the Savior, that is a myth, as there was no jasper columns of the ruined temple.
Sometimes referred to a rumor that when the interiors of the building materials used in the ruined Reichstag, in particular, a rare pink marble. In fact, in the GB meets either white or red marble. However, the well-known fact that the body of chemical faculty is equipped with captured German hoods, which indirectly confirms the use of materials in the construction of German origin.
the outside it seems that the spire and crowned him the star and ears covered with gold, but it is not. Spire, star, and ears not covered with gold - under the influence of wind and rain, gilding quickly come into disrepair. Spire, star, and ears of yellow lined glass plates, the inner side of the glass plates is covered with aluminum. Currently, part of the glass parts collapsed and crumbled, if you look through the binoculars, it is evident that in different places gaping holes.