How do pencils: from clay to paper
• How do the pencils: from clay to paper
Each of us at an early age, doing creative work, or at school lessons encountered such a subject like a pencil. Most people refer to it as something normal, as a simple and useful things. But few of us know how difficult the process of its production.
Incidentally, in the production of pencil 83 passes through the process steps used in its manufacture 107 kinds of raw materials and the production cycle is 11 days. If all this still look the part of an entire line of products, the drawn-established production complex with careful planning and control.
In order to see with their own eyes pencil manufacturing process, we go to the Moscow factory Krasin. The pencil is the oldest production in Russia. The factory was founded in 1926 with the support of the government.
The main task of the government was to eliminate illiteracy in the country and it was necessary to make the stationery available. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Krasin factory remained the only manufacturer of pencils in the CIS with a full production cycle. This means that the factory produced everything - from the lead up to the final product - pencils. Let's take a closer look at the process of production of pencils.
For the production of pencils in the factory comes specially treated and laid planks of lime. But before they will be involved, it is necessary to make writing rods.
proceed in the manufacture of pencil cores shop. Writing rods are made of a mixture of clay to graphite. Preparation of the necessary mixture begins with just such processing units, which produces grinding clay. Crushed clay is sent down the pipeline to the next production station.
In the next portion special mills are installed, wherein the clay more finely milled and mixed with water.
Plants for the preparation of a mixture of clay and graphite. There mixture for future rods gets rid of impurities and ready for further processing.
It should be noted that only natural ingredients are used in the production of slates, which makes the production of ecologically clean. Installation of the compression mixture. Of the resulting semi-finished products are rods. Waste from the production is actually not, because they are used again.
In this area of production are already rods themselves, but that they were in pencil on them will be held a number of technological operations.
The technology is getting rods - like extrusion. Carefully prepared and blended mass is extruded through a special punch holes.
After this preform for writing rods are placed in special containers.
and dried in the oven for 16 hours.
After that, the rods carefully sorted manually.
It looks like a workplace for sorting rods. This is a very difficult and painstaking work. For a table lamp sleeping cat.
After sorting the bars are baked in a special cabinet. The annealing temperature ranges from 800 to 1200 degrees Celsius and directly affects the final properties of the rod. Temperature hardness of the pencil depends, which has 17 gradations - from 7H to 8B.
After annealing rods under special pressure and temperature are filled with grease. It is necessary to give them the necessary writing properties: intensity features, ease of sliding, grinding quality, ease of erasing eraser. Depending on the desired hardness values rod can be used: hydrogenated fat, or even fat confectionery beeswax and carnauba wax. Output section bars products production.
After that, the rods fall on the assembly. Here on these machines are prepared to pencil boards. They are cut grooves for the installation of writing rods.
The cutting machine grinds a portion of the groove in the tablets.
The planks are automatically credited to a clip here.
Then on another machine the rods are placed in pre-prepared boards.
After laying the halves are glued together with white glue boards, and they are left to dry under pressure. The essence of this operation is that the rod itself is not glued to the boards. Its diameter is larger than the diameter of the groove, and to design withdrew - requires the press. The rod will be held in the wood not at the expense of adhesive, and due to interference wooden shell (specifically thus created in pencil prestressing constructions).
After drying special cutters blank is sawn into individual pencils.
Pencils are cut gradually for several cycles.
The output is ready, but not colored pencils.
At this stage lays the form of a pencil due to the type of profile milling cutter.
Next, on special lines passes priming pencil surface. When painting pencils enamel applied manufactured at the plant. These enamels are made from safe for human components.
Line Painting pencils.
I think that the stores we have seen many times Gift pencils, colored colorful patches. It turns out to be as paint, apply a whole specially developed technology. Here is a small fragment of the painting process.
When you visit the paint shop I've seen pencils party for delivery to the Government of the Russian Federation of the new sample. pencil tip symbolizes our national flag. Pencils in special drying technology framework. The regularity of the series looks very unusual and attracts.
After painting pencils placed in a batch to be sent to the following sections of the factory.
A look at thousands of pencils, colored on the company's plant technology is a great pleasure. This is a very unusual sight.
Next, a special machine held the final mechanical operations - processing ends.
The production line of surface finishing.
Further, in a special machine applied to a pencil with a special marking stamp, which is applied to each pencil through the ribbon foil.
Storage cabinet stamps. Here are stored stamps for the entire range of products.
If necessary, before filling pencils sharpened in a special machine. The photograph displayed intermediate stage sharpening.
I was impressed by the speed of the machine. Pencils fall into the sump continuous stream. Immediately recalled all the personal unsuccessful attempts to sharpen pencils. From these memories this machine began to inspire more respect.
The factory produces and that's such an interesting pencils oval used for construction and repair.
Arrays stockpiled pencils look very unusual and attracting. This not see anywhere else.
Packages section pencils sorted and packed by hand. Here a special atmosphere. People work quietly and silently. Many employees have continuous service at the factory for more than 40 years.
The factory has its own equipped laboratory, where products are tested throughout the production cycle and practiced new production technologies. In the picture - Amsler device for determining the resistance to fracture writing rods.
Before leaving, I went into the room with demonstration booths factory production. factory emblem is some nostalgia. After all, these pencils are familiar to all of us since childhood. The factory produces several product lines. Professional Series pencils for artists, decorators and designers.
Samples pencils supplied by the Government of the Russian Federation. For registration pencil drawing selected in the color of malachite standard benchtop instruments of the Government employees. But other than that, they have other differences from ordinary pencil: first their shape is made with maximum ergonomic hand of an adult, and in addition they use a special rod-type "lyumograf" for taking notes in the margins and in the diary, it is not smeared hand but well erased eraser without damaging the paper.
Pencils for engineering drawing:
An original souvenir production factory.
factory visit was very enjoyable and informative. It was very interesting to see how much of the original technology and work is put into the production of such a seemingly simple object like a pencil.