Munich metro (U-Bahn) is relatively new: it was opened in 1971. Today it is considered one of the most comfortable in Europe, thanks to the well thought-out system of direct, 100% equipment of elevators and escalators. And at all the stations available defibrillator to help passengers during a heart attack.
The first construction plans appeared in 1905, the line was to link the Main and East railway stations, but if these plans were not carried out, and the tram is quite cope with this function. Second unsuccessful approach was taken in 1928, but he prevented the global crisis.
Next, the construction of the Munich subway prevented World War II. Almost Built in 1941, the S-Bahn tunnel between stations Sendlinger Tor and Goteplatts later served as a bomb shelter, and after the war in his left after the bombing parts of a long time to grow mushrooms.
In 1965, after numerous changes to the plans the city authorities finally decided to start the construction. The foundation was laid three tunnels under the city center on two lines that share the path with changes in the number of total stations and raskhodschiesya to the outskirts. The opening of the subway has been dated for the Olympic Games in 1972, by this time opened the U3 portion of the line from the station Münchner Freiheit and Olimpiatsentrum.
Then she began to run, and city train S-Bahn. The train is integrated with the metro, it has in common with the station, and connects the city center with the suburbs and the inner suburbs within a radius of 40 km.
Munich Metro was the third in Germany after Berlin (one of the oldest in the world, opened in 1902) and Hamburg.
Now the Munich subway lines with total length of 6 103, 1 km, 100 stations. Track width standard European - 1435 mm. Power is supplied, located on the side of the main path from the third rail (as we), DC 750 volts. Trains moving at a speed of 80 km / h, every 5 minutes during rush hour and 10 minutes at other times, underground works from 4 am to 1 am on weekdays and weekends to 2 o'clock. Munich Munich is served by underground transport company (MVG), which also are the trams and buses in Munich. But city train (S-Bahn) relates to Deutsche Bahn (DB). At the same tariffs for all public transport, including the train are regulated by the Munich Transport and Tariff Union, so the tickets and fares are the same for all public transport. Thus, there are some tariffs (for 2011):
- a ticket to the short distance of € 1.20, for it can be 4 stops by bus or tram ride, or 2 stops away by subway or train;
- ticket to ride within one tariff zone (any number of stops) costs € 2.50; block of 10 call units of € 1.20 each, if it is necessary to drive the short tariff breaks one unit, and if necessary to go within the same tariff zone, breaks two and thus trip turns less at 10 cents than at popkupke corresponding ticket;
- day ticket for one person for € 5.60, or up to five people for € 10.20 - this ticket is valid for the whole day, until 6 am the next day;
- a three-day ticket - the same as the previous one, but it's worth respectively € 13.80 and € 23.70, which is beneficial if you stay in the city more than a day.
There are more long-lasting tickets, and the larger they are, the cheaper the trip out.
Turnstiles restricting passage nowhere, there validators in which it is necessary to validate the ticket, they receive a corresponding note about the time and place of passage, passengers can check inspectors - about the same as seen in Prague and Helsinki. The penalty for unpaid fare € 40.
A ticket on the metro (and other public transport) can be bought in the box office, as well as vending machines at stations, at the entrance to the subway and bus stops. Blue box on the poster - this is the validator, through which you need to punch tickets.
One of the ticket machines (there is a more simple, without a screen, so the pictures can be seen on the cover at the entrance of the subway). Payment accepted as banknotes and coins, and plastic cards. Interface in multiple languages, though I do not remember the presence of Russian, because they do not experience any difficulties with the English interface, and often do not even notice that there is a possibility of switching.
The station Marienplatz.
In general, the Munich subway station quite the same type. In architectural terms they can be connected in parallel with our Soviet centipedes: generally similar, but there are slight differences, here the other tiles, the color gamut is different, there are bas-reliefs of some special, then the column instead of marble, aluminum coated, generally something like that. But there are raisins.
Unfortunately, nebylo so much time, the intervals between trains of 10 minutes - not very much to go to each station, especially if they are so similar to each other. In general, I found only one, past which could not pass by on the way to the Marienplatz to Olimpiatsentrum. This station Münchner Freiheit.
The station might have been the same as the majority, but it "does" light and color.
The separating two column lines of blue coated tiles, as highlighted in blue lights.
Then clearly visible display, which displays the time until the next train, and to another two, following him. Very convenient, I think, and this happens in other metros of Europe - that now interferes in the Moscow metro to do so?
An information stand with maps of the city and the area in which the station is located.
station (as well as several neighboring) - common for lines U3 and U6. Incidentally, signs not just embellished in different colors: blue in the foreground corresponds to the U6 line color - it was her way between the two platforms are separated by columns (itself a sign stands between the tracks); Orange just as easy to guess corresponds to U3 line - her way along the walls of the station are. Location paths is the same as in Moscow Kitay-Gorod.
Tunnel - common for 2 lines. A mirror in which the driver looks after landing, is also the exit door in the tunnel.
In addition to mirror the driver can also watch the landing and in the display: The station, like many in the Munich subway, has a slight bend.
And another Münchener Freiheit has a mirrored ceiling, which creates the illusion of height.
Yellow restrictive band. Not just the yellow, I think you understand why.
In the Munich subway runs three types of trains. At this station we were able to see all three. And to pass to them.
Type C - the most recent, produced from 2000 to Bombardier and Siemens factory. In one composition - 6 cars with a through pass.
Inside something I reminded our Rusichi. Only on this wider eyes.
able to do all the same in the design do Bombardier. Trains in Stockholm also their work.
Type B. Produced from 1981 to 1995 at the factory MAN. In one part may be 2, 4 or 6 cars.
And the old version - type A. Produced on MAN plant from 1967 to 1983. The composition can also consist of 2, 4 or 6 cars.
In A and B, not only do not have a pass-through, but do not even have end doors - there are seats. Inside the cabin of both types are similar.
Suddenly, the middle finger.
And one more station - Olimpiatsentrum - that something like this and look, most stations flashed outside the window on the way to the Marienplatz. By the way, there is only one line, but at the station for some reason, 4 ways.
The contact rail. The inscription means "short train", that is, at this point you can take the train of two cars. The contact rail is on the opposite side of the platform, at the same time, as you may have noticed on the roads is not the gutter, and a passenger that fell on the way to the Munich underground recommended to hide from the train at a platform, so there is no danger of electric shock.
Land Olimpiatsentrum lobby. Also purely functional architecture.
In general, you can say. Metro like the subway. Built just to deliver passengers where they want. Perhaps I have not seen any more interesting stations that, judging by the network, is on the outskirts. Stretches short interval between trains too big. The payment system - convenient.
In general, it is very reasonable, I think to do a single ticket for all public transport, and even with the possibility to go for some time without any restrictions on travel. This is especially useful if you are a tourist or if you are driving on public transport is not constant. It is hoped that maybe we have before dorastut.