6 outrageous scientific experiments on children
What if for the sake of humanity, for example, cancer need to briefly leave several frightened children in the wild? And just to satisfy scientific curiosity? Do you think the answer is obvious? Alas, not for everyone. Some scholars do not see anything wrong in that, for the sake of science ...
1. take the children into the wild forest and set on each other
In 1954, the Turkish psychologist Muzaffer Sheriff wondered what would happen if the throw the two groups of children in distant and lonely place to get to quarrel with each other?
Another way to satisfy scientific curiosity, but to experiment, Sheriff did not know why scored two groups of eleven ordinary 11-year-olds in each. Children were confident that depart in the summer camp and anticipating three weeks relaxing climbing in the mountains, fishing and swimming.
None of them could not imagine that parents had signed the consent to their participation in the experiment, the Sheriff, and that there is another about anything unsuspecting peer group specifically typed to relieve them.
The first week everything was going well, as both groups were kept separate from each other. This is the time allotted to it to build relationships within each group. And here and there formed a certain hierarchy, there were leaders and came up with the name - one group wished to be called "Eagles", another - "rattlesnakes".
And when each group was formed "a real team," Eagles and Snakes allowed to "accidentally" find out about each other's existence. The second stage of the experiment, which researchers have made every effort to adjust the conflicts, and then watched as the feud will go far.
It began with innocent games like basketball and tug of war and prizes in the form of a penknife for the winners and the losers for the offenses. Then the researchers skillfully broadened and deepened the conflict, and, in the end, to organize a party for which Orlov brought a little earlier. Arrived first with pleasure ate all the most delicious, leaving rivals pitiful scraps. Snakes were offended and went to call Orlov. Then followed the throwing of a plate of food, which in the end resulted in a full-scale battle. After that, children from different groups came into a rage every time you saw each other, and each time tried to arrange rivals some nasty.
In general, the Sheriff and his team succeeded in record time (less than three weeks) to transform ordinary 11-year-olds with no behavioral problems in a crowd of aggressive savages. Long live science!
By the way, Sheriff was doing similar experiments three times, and each time they ended in serious clashes.
2. Program of children to violence, and then slip them clown
In the early 60-ies of psychologist Albert Bandura decided to find out whether children tend to imitate the aggressive behavior of adults. He took a huge blow-up doll, clown, which he called Bobo, and directed the film, as an adult aunt scolds him, thrashes, kicks and even beats with a hammer. Then he showed the video a group of 24 preschoolers. The second group showed a video without violence, and the third did not show anything.
Then all three groups alternately ran into the room, where he was a clown Bobo, a few hammers and even toy guns, although no one video no firearms did not appear.
Children who watched violent videos without wasting any time started to torment the poor Bobo:
A boy put a gun to the head clown and began to whisper something about how happy knock out his brains:
In the other two groups, there was not even a hint of violence.
After Bandura presented his findings to the scientific community, there was a lot of skeptics who say that all this does not prove anything, as a rubber doll in order and come up to her to kick. Then Pandora made a film with the abuse of a living adult, wearing a clown, then I gathered more and more children, he showed them his imperishable, and again ran into the room to the (now live!) Bobo. As many of you may have guessed, and without any of the experiment, the children began to insult, beat and kick the living clown with the same zeal as the first time.
At this time, the assertion of Pandora that children imitate the behavior of adults, no one dare not challenge.
3. Experiment with a broken doll
Psychologists at the University of Iowa decided to figure out how to have kids there is a feeling of guilt. To do this, they conducted an experiment, which was named "Broken Doll".
Adult showed the child a toy and tells a moving story about what she was special, as much connected with it, and how he loved her when I was very young. Thereafter, he gave a toy to the child, punishing to be very, very careful.
Once the toy is provided in the children's hands, she "broke" the most terrible and hopeless way - a special mechanism was set up for this purpose. Adult, in accordance with the instructions needed to take a deep breath and sit in silence staring at the baby for a minute.
Imagine a child who is sitting in the sepulchral silence under your reproachful look, shrinks, hiding his eyes, covers his head with his hands. Minute, stretched to infinity.
It is interesting that children who appeared to be injured with a broken doll experiment most, the next five years behaved much about. Perhaps the experiment really taught them a healthy sense of guilt. Maybe these children from an early age learned that adults can expect all the bases.
4. Deceive baby
Once young children begin to crawl, they soon realize that it is not necessary to climb down the steep surfaces, because you can fall and hit hard. But how did they find out that fall, if not fallen even once in his life? The study of this phenomenon, according to scientists at Cornell University Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk, was unthinkable without having to push the baby to the edge of the "terrible abyss" and convince crawl forward.
They are fashioned so-called "open eye" - ingenious design of boards laid on top of a thick glass. Then all this was disguised with a cloth with a suitable pattern. The result was a complete illusion that in place of glass - the empty space to the floor. It would seem - that's okay, no real danger for no crumbs.
Of course, physical damage to the experiment did not represent the child. But…
Children one by one pushed to the edge of the "cliff" and the mother, on the other hand tried to persuade them to crawl through the window. In other words, they are somewhere scored mothers who tried to persuade her crumbs to do what they believed (and rightly so) certain death. Their children had to choose between obedience and a sense of self-preservation.
Thus, it was tested 36 children aged 6 to 14 months. Only three of them crawling on the glass. Most turned around and crawled backwards from the mothers side. Others started howling.
Despite the fact that most children do not fall for the bait of experimenters, they still found themselves too close to the edge of the "cliff" and the real situation could easily fall. Which allowed Gibson and Walk to make "sensational" concluded that "children should not be left at the edge, regardless of how well they can determine the depth."
Who would have thought!
5. Use orphans to train expectant mothers
It was in those days when the girls gave to educational institutions only for them to learn to cook, and to please her husband and keep house. Someone came up with the "brilliant" idea - to prepare adolescent girls to be mothers by means of living allowances. That is true orphans.
Starting around 1920, these institutions have started to "borrow" from orphanages hundreds of children who could practice their young pupils. The children were kept in special classrooms where lessons on time to run a group of 8-12 "mothers".
The real names of the children were kept secret, so the girls come up with their nicknames, sometimes quite humiliating. After a year or two of work "visual aids" joined up in foster families.
The program lasted until the 1960s.
6. Turn mutilated penis in an experiment in a lifetime length
David Reimer, as well as his twin brother, born in 1965 in Winnipeg (Canada). When he was eight months old, his parents brought him to the doctor to get circumcised. Instead of a scalpel doctor for some reason decided to take electrocauter (cautery device for electric shock). And in the course of the procedure accidentally burned to David's penis.
Grieving parents went to a psychologist for advice Dr. John Money, who specialized in the study of sexual identity. Recommendation Dr. Mani was radical - to conduct sex-change operation and raise David as a girl.
Parents who were willing to do everything possible just to see their children happy, and followed the advice of a reputable doctor. But, as it turned out much later, the quality of life of the child care Money in the latest turn. The doctor did not want to miss the perfect chance to conduct a scientific experiment, which was to "prove that education, and not the nature of gender identity and determines a person's sexual orientation." And the fact that David had a twin brother, gave, according to Mani, the opportunity to confirm this hypothesis. The problem was that David is in any did not agree to become a brand. Brenda refused to wear dresses and prefers to play cars and pistols brother, not paying any attention to their own dolls. The school is constantly teased her, because she spoke and acted like a boy.
Desperate parents Brands / David went back to Dr. Mani, but he assured them that the child simply "difficult age" and soon all will be adjusted. All this time, Mani published scientific article about his experiment, which is considered as the complete and absolute scientific triumph.
And when David grew up and learned the truth, Dr. Mani suddenly veered and stopped the work published. A couple of decades of him nothing could be heard. And only in the 1997th from the archives of documents surfaced showing the catastrophic damage that he caused the poor David.