How to make yogurt
We are all accustomed to the standard products of the milk type of kefir, sour milk, sour cream or yogurt. And all of this relates to the so-called "healthy eating". Recently he appeared in our diet product called "yoghurt". Invented many centuries ago in the East, today it has become firmly established in the diet of millions of people.
How did produce this mysterious product? The theme of today's reportage - Plant company "Ehrmann" for the production of yoghurts "Ermigurt", "prebiotic", "Ermik" and many other delicious foods.
His first dairy farm company founder Alois Ehrmann opened back in 1920 in Germany. And the history of the modern company, "Ehrmann" began in 1929, when he purchased the land in the town Obershonegg Province Allgäu (southern Germany). In 60-ies of XX century "Ehrmann" the first in Germany began producing yogurt with fruit pieces. This delicacy created a furor among German customers. In those days, no one has yet produced anything like it!
In 1992 it was purchased by the dairy plant "hainichen-Freiberg" in Saxony. Now is the most modern plant for the production of yoghurts and desserts in Germany. Hence in 1994, the export of products to Russia and other CIS countries. By 1997, the turnover of products sold in Russia, has reached 100 million German marks, and the company's owners decided to open production in Russia.
Let's look at this plant.
In September 1998, the first stone of the new plant was built in a picturesque location Ramenskoye district. Just one and a half years later - in March 2000 - it started production of the first products. Now it is a modern, equipped with the latest science and technology dairy production with high quality standards of raw materials and manufactured products. To date range is significantly widened. Now the plant "Ehrmann" produces a wide variety of yoghurts and yoghurt products, sour cream, curds, puddings, desserts, milk and yoghurt drinks. The volume of production is about 1000-1500 pallets of finished products per day.
Production of all milk production begins with the raw materials - the most ordinary, but high-quality milk.
Milk is delivered to the plant from various dairy farms. Currently, the company's raw material base "Ehrmann" are agricultural enterprises of Moscow, Vladimir, Smolensk and Ryazan regions. Ratio of raw milk from Moscow region in volume daily acceptance is about 55%. Stake Vladimir and Ryazansk regions accounting for 20%, and about 5% of milk supplied from Smolensk area. Milk supply is carried out as a large-scale enterprises with the volume of deliveries of about 17 000 tons per year, as well as suppliers with a relatively small amount, not exceeding 500 tons of milk per year.
Milk tanker that you see in the picture, brought about 20 tons of milk. His "barrel" is made of stainless steel on the principle of the thermos - the milk is not heated and does not freeze in sub-zero temperatures outside.
The day milk tanker makes one or two depending on the flight route. Every day, the plant discharged 10-12 milk tankers, but only on the plant daily receives an average of 215 tons of milk. Each milk tanker is equipped with a computer that keeps a record of the transported milk, typing "check" and manages the on-board storage of the product system.
Milk from each machine runs an express analysis in industrial laboratories, and only after approval by the laboratory worker is instructed to take milk. The company "Hermann" only takes milk premium and first grade.
Production laboratory consists of two parts: the microbiological and physico-chemical. In them there is a study of raw (raw milk ingredients), semi-finished and finished products for quality and safety. Chemistry Department laboratory analyzes of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological -, respectively, microbiological.
Check of density brought milk.
After receiving the milk is stored in these huge metal tanks. They are made of stainless steel, which does not oxidize and does not affect the product. Before getting into the milk tank is cooled and filtered. Throughout the process, it does not interact with the environment.
He who is first in the dairy plant, might think that he was in a medical clinic. Before you get there, be sure to wear a gown, hat, safety shoes, remove watches and jewelery, disinfect hands. Sterility, infertility and sterility again. Otherwise - the right yogurt will not work.
I have been in many plants, but dairy plant appeared for the first time. What I saw I was pleasantly surprised: the entire plant - a tangle of pipes, wires, sensors and pipes again. Particularly surprising that the whole yoghurt production process after acceptance of milk occurs in a closed cycle. Therefore, the contact of raw material and finished product from the external environment, or with a person at any stage of the manufacture is completely eliminated. How is souring, or how to make fruit and berry filling, you can only imagine.
Such stringent conditions are reflected in the life of the product. Short term storage in 7-18 days - not always an indicator of naturalness and freshness of the product, it can also serve as an indirect indication of the insufficient level of sanitation, hygiene and technical equipment in the workplace.
Separator. Here, the milk is separated into skim milk and cream. The most interesting that on these two components are mixed again, but in a strictly defined proportions.
Here, in a tightly closed sterile container, the milk for a few minutes, heated to 80 ° C. At such temperature destroys harmful bacteria. And then the milk is cooled. This is called pasteurization. Then added starter.
We have come to the most important. Here, the milk is transformed into yogurt through live yoghurt bacteria that enter the plant in a sealed package. "Wake up" these bacteria at a temperature of + 20 ° C. They are added to the milk, they have it fermented and made into yogurt. But enzymes - gentle creatures, and they need to wake up in an atmosphere of absolute sterility.
The next stage - normalization or homogenisation of fat, whose main task - defending warning cream during ripening and to ensure even distribution of fat in the milk. It sounds a bit technical and confusing, however.
the production process is controlled from the office, which monitor the state of all phases of production from start to finish. Just a change of running an average of 30 people.
The addition of fruit and berry filler (typically about 10-15% of the total weight of the yogurt). In fact - it's jam, only very concentrated, so eat it with a spoon "of the banks" will not succeed. In such drums filler is supplied to the plant.
The yogurt adds only natural fruit, or - where this is provided for product formulation - fruit or berry juice or puree. And in order that the fruit in yogurt is impossible to contaminate, they are pasteurized or, simply put, cook - as our grandmother's house cook jam, which consists of real fruit, but sometimes stored for several months, until winter.
The next step - cooling and heat treatment again, which is the final before filling, - performed at a temperature of about 60-80 ° C.
opening for me was filling line. Purple reel in the foreground - it brakerazhny leaf - the raw material for plastic cup. Before you hit the tape in the car it is disinfected and then using the hot press it is punched out cups, which are already filled with the product.
At the same time the car enters the foil (it - the cup lid), which seals the cups two passes: the first time it lightly grab, and the second - already definitively.
Then the cups are cut in the traditional boxes of 4 pieces each. At the plant heard an interesting version of why a pack of 4 cups in an average family - 4 people (parents and 2 children), so this family pack.
Next yogurt sorted and packed. After filling machine conveyor belt artful image runs the shop, and then goes to the packaging, and then palletizing. View flickering of thousands of cups of yogurt on her fascinated.
The plant employs many experts from Germany, which carry out technical control of the equipment and process.
The German specialists for many years living and working in our country. Someone here family, and someone is flying to their Christmas.
All, then - to the warehouse, where the maturation of the yogurt. All products are counted and recorded in a database. Samples are taken regularly for quality control. In stock yogurt passes quarantine - three days - until the coming of microbiological examination of samples from the lot.
The plant employs 11 parallel production lines. In addition to drinking yoghurt produced curds, milk mixture and pastry cream.
For example, in one line producing yogurt in bottles. If the plastic cups are made on the spot from brakerazhnogo sheet, the bottle has come prepared.
They fill up the car from which they leave in an orderly manner.
and enters the casting. As it turned out, the bottle filling takes place in two stages: first filled half, then, respectively, topped. This is done to speed up the conveyor to the bottle did not stay in one place.
After filling, the interior is filled with nitrogen to displace air, after which the foil is sealed bottle.
Immediately, at the exit of the machine, just 30 minutes from the tape is removed and 10 bottles is their checkweighing.
Next to the bottle put on the label, which is under the influence of heat shrinks the shape of the bottle.
Before entering the warehouse is taken from each batch of the test products, which is sent to the laboratory.
There she was checked, including taste.
Studies carried out at all stages of the production cycle - from the receipt of raw milk to the output of finished products, as well as examines the state of the finished product in a series of storage (at different temperatures and varying duration - for absolute certainty of consistent product quality throughout shelf life ).
In a white lab centrifuge red looks alien device.
But she has a very important mission - to analyze the content of milk fat in milk and milk products.
The finished goods warehouse. + 4 ° C at any time of the year. Shoot in summer clothes there was a bit cool.
And finally - the shipment of finished and packaged products.