Caves: The world under the world
If you are fed up with routine, you may need time to wander through the caves. Each of us should at least once to walk down a narrow corridor and a miraculous glimpse into the amazing underground world of caves ... like playing hide and seek with you: this is an amazing and unpredictable place.
Caves - a fairyland, which may consist of eye pleasing variegated types, as well as from the cold ice maze. Thousands of years of water drops, eroding stone and "maturing" minerals create a silent world of beauty and mystery ... Graceful arches, giant crystals ... their silence broken only by the sound of dripping water.
"Well of Wishes" in the caves near the town of Luray in Virginia
The most typical caves are formed when a small amount of the rainwater seeps into the limestone cracks and increase the crack, shattering the stone. For centuries, water, supersaturated with minerals dripping from the ceiling of the cave and forms stalactites and stalagmites.
One thing to note: although these structures are made from minerals, in fact they are extremely thin and fragile, and many of them are quite rare; and they can be scattered by the touch. Calcite (the mineral that makes up many caves education), for example, is so soft that it can be scraped off with a fingernail.
Here are the names of some caves and rock formations:
- stone flowers
- cave pearls
- straws of sodium carbonate - antodity
The largest cave systems
- Jeita Grotto - the largest cave system in the Middle East. The largest stalactite in the world is here, at a depth of eight meters.
- The deepest cave is Crow in Abkhazia; it was examined to a depth of two thousand one hundred and ninety one meter.
- The longest cave system studied - Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, which sits on a 591 kilometer.
Why do not we make a short trip around the world in search of caves amusing? Let's start with North America.
In the caves of Virginia Lyureyskih many interesting formations - calcite crystals with unusual shapes. All of them were formed when caves were still filled with water and saturated with acid. Acid "eats" soft rock and the result arches and a variety of projections.
In the photo below - one of the most deep "valleys" in a cave "Amazing cave pit Ellison" in Georgia, 179 meters deep:
Cold and ice caves
Some ice caves aptly called "glacial".
In many caves "grow hair" - projections of ice that looks rather strange:
Brazil-crystal of underground water
Region Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil (especially the city of Bonito) could pohvasatsya lots of amazing underground lakes: Gruta do Lago Azul, Gruta do Mimoso, Aqubrio Natural. The limestone formations are hiding unreal colors of the lake and waterfalls (many trips here are associated with diving, so to some lakes more than a hundred meters deep..):
limestone caves in the same area - a good thing for the study:
Venezuela ghosts Cave
Cave Cueva del Fantasma so big that two helicopters can fly into it. But it is rather ruined the gorge than a cave.
Iran: a solid cave system
Katale Khor - cave, which was formed back in the Jurassic period. This is one of the "frozen" caves in Southwest Zanjan province, it is connected with other caves vast underground network.
Vietnam Cave Hang Thien Cung
In Vietnam, a lot of caves, and, as in China, they are illuminated by bright colors. But sometimes even artificial light can not surpass the created nature of the form of rocks:
Mexico: huge selenite crystals
In 2000, miners discovered one of the most amazing caves. Cave is just a mile from the point eruption magma temperature because it - about 45 degrees Celsius to plus 90-100% humidity, which (naturally) limits the amount of time that it can be carried out. An exciting spectacle - a giant crystalline formations, which are more than 600, 000 years.
The crystals were formed under water; groundwater saturated with calcium sulfate, they are also within the molecule and selenite. They turn into crystals, and as there is nothing they do not interfere, grow downright to gigantic proportions. The cave was drained miners in the 80-ies of the last century and the crystal growth process is halted. Who knows what would be the crystals, if not drained the cave?
The giant geode
Geodes - closed cavity in any rocks made explicitly or cryptocrystalline crystalline aggregates minerals.
Typically geode formed by layering or after the eruption - a void in the rock in which the crystals grow gradually, e.g. amethyst or quartz, of which there are a large number. Many small geodes, and some are quite large (it is clearly visible on the photo).
The ancient cave towns
Caves in Khosrov Reserve in Armenia once served as a refuge ancient tribes:
It is a city of Cappadocia in Turkey. These seemingly unsightly houses are furnished better than five-star hotel?
Given how hot it may be outside, you can imagine how cool these rooms: