Found a way to create artificial synapses based on nanowires
The basic structural element of the nervous system is a cell that transmits information to other cells by synapses. This is a multi-structured structures which create artificially, and even in miniature, is not so simple. However, a group of scientists from Forschungszentrum Jülich together with its Aachen Turin and colleagues developed a special nanowires that have the ability to both store and process information, as well as numerous other parallel receive signals. This is very similar to the way the nervous system operates.
Due to the rapid progress in the field of artificial intelligence is now AI can drive a car, instantly translate texts, to win the world chess champion, winning roles in video games and much more. In this case, one of the biggest challenges is to try to artificially reproduce the treatment of human brain signals. In our usual neural networks, data is stored and processed in a largely parallel. On the other hand, conventional computers to quickly perform tasks consistently and make a clear distinction between storage and processing of information. Typically, neural networks can be modeled only on the basis of a very large computer on conventional chips and chips. On the other hand we have a neuromorphic chips that mimic the human brain. This type of computer is capable of operating in a decentralized manner, having at its disposal a variety of processors, which, like neurons, are associated with each other networks. If the processor fails, its function can take on another. Moreover, as in the brain, neuromorphic chip has the ability to learn.
"With today's semiconductor technology, these functions to some extent been achieved. However, these systems are only suitable for specific tasks. Our devices are based on the nanowires of zinc oxide. They can handle and even store information. At the same time they are very small and energy-efficient. "- said in an interview to EurekAlert! lead author Ilya shafts and Peter Grünberg of Forschungszentrum Jülich.
Scheme nanowire structure
To obtain these properties, researchers used a zinc oxide nanowire. The resulting component is not only very small (thinner than a human hair), but also able to operate much faster than the flash memory. For manufacturing nanowires scientists precipitated the required materials on a metal substrate. Further, in order to create a functioning cell, both ends of the nanowire must be attached to a suitable metal, in this case, platinum and silver. Metals act in this case both electrodes, and metal ions capable of spreading across the surface of the wire and make connections to change its conductivity. A new type of materials will help in creating an artificial nervous system, AI systems, as well as for the production of neuromorphic processor, which, according to the authors, "can take on different biological functions of neurons and synapses."
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